Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) was identified in 13 dogs and nine cats. The tumours were subjected to microscopical examination and were graded using a human pathological grading system. In the canine and feline tumours there was more necrosis and higher mitotic activity (mitotic index and Ki67 labelling index) than reported in human ONB. Rosettes were a common feature of feline ONBs. A significant correlation was observed between the histological grade and the Ki67 labelling index. The histopathological diagnosis of ONB was confirmed immunohistochemically by demonstration of the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Two other neuron-specific antibodies specific for microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and neuronal nuclei antigen (NeuN) were evaluated. MAP-2 expression proved to have higher specificity than labelling for NSE. NeuN expression was less sensitive and of limited practical value.