Our previous study showed that (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can detect lipid peaks characteristic for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cerebral lesions of young children; therefore, we aimed to extend and validate the application of (1)H-MRS for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis lesions in three adolescent patients. Here, we document lipid peaks characteristic for M. tuberculosis infection by (1)H-MRS from lung tissue surrounding lung cavities of two patients whose sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and positive for M. tuberculosis by genetic testing, indicating active tuberculosis. A similar lipid peak was found also in the pleural effusion of a third patient with concurrent lung cavity compatible with active tuberculosis. However, in a patient with a pyogenic pulmonary abscess, (1)H-MRS of the drained pus displayed different characteristic peaks but no lipid peak at all. CONCLUSION: Our findings further validate (1)H-MRS as a rapid, non-invasive, and specific diagnostic tool for active tuberculosis in children with microbiologically documented infection outside the central nervous system, specifically in the lungs.