Aftereffects of the Dresden bombing of February 1945 on 47 survivors were investigated using a comprehensive framework of trauma sequelae including pathogenetic, salutogenetic, and further mediating or moderating variables. A relatively low rate of PTSD symptomatology was noted. Traumatic exposure was related to current PTSD symptoms and to personal growth, with no systematic relationships between the 2 outcome variables. PTSD symptoms were primarily related to external control, whereas personal growth was primarily associated with internal control. Religious belief in the afterlife moderated effects between exposure and posttraumatic avoidance or personal growth. Furthermore, belonging to particular age groups at traumatization (adolescents, middle-aged adults) was associated with increased posttraumatic intrusions at the time of data collection.