This publication provides the first comparison and commentary on two critical editions of the same sermon. Few texts have been preserved both in the original language and in the language of the target audience. The third sermon of Basil is completely accessible in both versions as the homilia secunda Basilii of Rufinus. Just how reliable the Latin translators are is of great importance for both theology and philosophy. For example, did Rufinus of Aquileia translate precisely, or interpret freely? In the past theology and philosophy have not contributed significantly to understanding such translations. There has been a lack of critical analyses of texts and literary studies, a gap that is filled by this commentary.