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Comparison of different live/dead stainings for detection and quantification of adherent microorganisms in the initial oral biofilm


Tawakoli, P N; Al-Ahmad, A; Hoth-Hannig, W; Hannig, M; Hannig, C (2013). Comparison of different live/dead stainings for detection and quantification of adherent microorganisms in the initial oral biofilm. Clinical oral investigations, 17(3):841-850.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate different fluorescence-based, two-color viability assays for visualization and quantification of initial bacterial adherence and to establish reliable alternatives to the ethidium bromide staining procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial colonization was attained in situ on bovine enamel slabs (n = 6 subjects). Five different live/dead assays were investigated (fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI), Syto 9/PI (BacLight®), FDA/Sytox red, Calcein acetoxymethyl (AM)/Sytox red, and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)/Sytox red). After 120 min of oral exposure, analysis was performed with an epifluorescence microscope. Validation was carried out, using the colony-forming units for quantification and the transmission electron microscopy for visualization after staining. RESULTS: The average number of bacteria amounted to 2.9 ± 0.8 × 10(4) cm(-2). Quantification with Syto 9/PI and Calcein AM/Sytox red yielded an almost equal distribution of cells (Syto 9/PI 45 % viable, 55 % avital; Calcein AM/Sytox red 52 % viable, 48 % avital). The live/dead ratio of CFDA/Sytox red and FDA/Sytox red was 3:2. An aberrant dispersal was recorded with FDA/PI (viable 34 %, avital 66 %). The TEM analysis indicated that all staining procedures affect the structural integrity of the bacterial cells considerably. CONCLUSION: The following live/dead assays are reliable techniques for differentiation of viable and avital adherent bacteria: BacLight, FDA/Sytox red, Calcein AM/Sytox red, and CFDA/Sytox red. These fluorescence-based techniques are applicable alternatives to toxic and instable conventional assays, such as the staining procedure based on ethidium bromide. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Differentiation of viable and avital adherent bacteria offers the possibility for reliable evaluation of different mouth rinses, oral medication, and disinfections.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate different fluorescence-based, two-color viability assays for visualization and quantification of initial bacterial adherence and to establish reliable alternatives to the ethidium bromide staining procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial colonization was attained in situ on bovine enamel slabs (n = 6 subjects). Five different live/dead assays were investigated (fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI), Syto 9/PI (BacLight®), FDA/Sytox red, Calcein acetoxymethyl (AM)/Sytox red, and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)/Sytox red). After 120 min of oral exposure, analysis was performed with an epifluorescence microscope. Validation was carried out, using the colony-forming units for quantification and the transmission electron microscopy for visualization after staining. RESULTS: The average number of bacteria amounted to 2.9 ± 0.8 × 10(4) cm(-2). Quantification with Syto 9/PI and Calcein AM/Sytox red yielded an almost equal distribution of cells (Syto 9/PI 45 % viable, 55 % avital; Calcein AM/Sytox red 52 % viable, 48 % avital). The live/dead ratio of CFDA/Sytox red and FDA/Sytox red was 3:2. An aberrant dispersal was recorded with FDA/PI (viable 34 %, avital 66 %). The TEM analysis indicated that all staining procedures affect the structural integrity of the bacterial cells considerably. CONCLUSION: The following live/dead assays are reliable techniques for differentiation of viable and avital adherent bacteria: BacLight, FDA/Sytox red, Calcein AM/Sytox red, and CFDA/Sytox red. These fluorescence-based techniques are applicable alternatives to toxic and instable conventional assays, such as the staining procedure based on ethidium bromide. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Differentiation of viable and avital adherent bacteria offers the possibility for reliable evaluation of different mouth rinses, oral medication, and disinfections.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:06 Dec 2012 15:20
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:07
Publisher:Springer
Series Name:Clinical Oral Investigations
ISSN:1432-6981
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-012-0792-3
PubMed ID:22821430

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