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Essential roles of Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ influx in growth arrest of human vascular smooth muscle cells by bilirubin


Stoeckius, M; Erat, A; Fujikawa, T; Hiromura, M; Koulova, A; Otterbein, L; Bianchi, C; Tobiasch, E; Dagon, Y; Sellke, F W; Usheva, A (2012). Essential roles of Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ influx in growth arrest of human vascular smooth muscle cells by bilirubin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(19):15418-15426.

Abstract

The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway and the cellular Raf and cyclin D1 content that results in retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation on amino acids S608 and S780. These events impede the release of YY1 to the nuclei and its availability to regulate the expression of genes and to support cellular proliferation. Moreover, altered calcium influx and calpain II protease activation leads to proteolytical degradation of transcription factor YY1. We conclude that in the serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle primary cell cultures, bilirubin favors growth arrest, and we propose that this activity is regulated by its interaction with the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, effect on cyclin D1 and Raf content, altered retinoblastoma protein profile of hypophosphorylation, calcium influx, and YY1 proteolysis.Wepropose that these activities together culminate in diminished 5 S and 45 S ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth arrest. The observations provide important mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition of human vascular smooth muscle cells from proliferative to contractile phenotype and the role of bilirubin in this transition.

Abstract

The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway and the cellular Raf and cyclin D1 content that results in retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation on amino acids S608 and S780. These events impede the release of YY1 to the nuclei and its availability to regulate the expression of genes and to support cellular proliferation. Moreover, altered calcium influx and calpain II protease activation leads to proteolytical degradation of transcription factor YY1. We conclude that in the serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle primary cell cultures, bilirubin favors growth arrest, and we propose that this activity is regulated by its interaction with the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, effect on cyclin D1 and Raf content, altered retinoblastoma protein profile of hypophosphorylation, calcium influx, and YY1 proteolysis.Wepropose that these activities together culminate in diminished 5 S and 45 S ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth arrest. The observations provide important mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition of human vascular smooth muscle cells from proliferative to contractile phenotype and the role of bilirubin in this transition.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic and Policlinic for Internal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:30 Nov 2012 12:02
Last Modified:15 Aug 2017 01:29
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Series Name:Journal of Biological Chemistry
ISSN:0021-9258
Additional Information:This research was originally published in: Stoeckius, M; Erat, A; Fujikawa, T; Hiromura, M; Koulova, A; Otterbein, L; Bianchi, C; Tobiasch, E; Dagon, Y; Sellke, F W; Usheva, A (2012). Essential roles of Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ influx in growth arrest of human vascular smooth muscle cells by bilirubin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(19):15418-15426. © the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.266510
PubMed ID:22262839

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