To prepare a new antiviral duplex drug linking Zidovudine (AZT) and Foscarnet (PFA) via a lipophilic octadecylglycerol residue we condensed 1-O-4-monomethoxytrityl-3-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-2-hydrogenphosphonate obtained from 3-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol with AZT by the phosphonate method. The purified condensation product was de-tritylated resulting in 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidylyl-(5′ → 2-O)-3-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol, followed by treatment with (ethoxycarbonyl)phosphoric dichloride. The resulting 3′-azido-3′-deoxy-thymidylyl-(5′ → 2)-3-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-1-O-(ethoxycarbonyl)phosphonate was purified by preparative RP-18 column chromatography. The antiviral duplex drug 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidylyl-(5′ → 2-O)-3-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-1-O-phosphonoformate trisodium salt (AZT–lipid–PFA) was obtained after alkaline cleavage of the phosphonoformate ethylester residue. The overall yield of the five step synthesis performed at gram scale was about 30%. According to a supposed pathway AZT–lipid–PFA could be cleaved to yield a mixture of different antiviral compounds such as AZT, AZT-5′-monophosphate, octadecylglycerol–AZT, PFA and octadecylglycerol–PFA, possibly producing additive and/or synergistic antiviral effects. In vitro studies showed that the duplex drug exhibits antiviral activities against HIV and especially against drug-resistant strains and clinical isolates of HSV and HCMV. The E50 values of AZT–lipid–PFA against HIV ranged between 170 and 200 nM. The half-maximal inhibitory doses (IC50) against highly acyclovir (ACV)-resistant HSV isolates determined by a plaque reduction assay ranged between 1.87 and 4.59 μM. Using ganciclovir (GCV)-sensitive, GCV resistant and drug cross-resistant HCMV strains the IC50-values of AZT–lipid–PFA were between 2.78 and 1.18 μM. With regard to PFA, the IC50-value of AZT–lipid–PFA determined on a multi-drug-resistant HCMV strain was about 90-fold lower than that of PFA, demonstrating the superior antiviral effect of the duplex-drug.