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Glucose sensing in human epidermis using mid-infrared photoacoustic detection


Kottmann, Jonas; Rey, Julien M; Luginbühl, Joachim; Reichmann, Ernst; Sigrist, Markus W (2012). Glucose sensing in human epidermis using mid-infrared photoacoustic detection. Biomedical Optics Express, 3(4):667-680.

Abstract

No reliable non-invasive glucose monitoring devices are currently available. We implemented a mid-infrared (MIR) photoacoustic (PA) setup to track glucose in vitro in deep epidermal layers, which represents a significant step towards non-invasive in vivo glucose measurements using MIR light. An external-cavity quantum-cascade laser (1010-1095 cm(-1)) and a PA cell of only 78 mm(3) volume were employed to monitor glucose in epidermal skin. Skin samples are characterized by a high water content. Such samples investigated with an open-ended PA cell lead to varying conditions in the PA chamber (i.e., change of light absorption or relative humidity) and cause unstable signals. To circumvent variations in relative humidity and possible water condensation, the PA chamber was constantly ventilated by a 10 sccm N(2) flow. By bringing the epidermal skin samples in contact with aqueous glucose solutions with different concentrations (i.e., 0.1-10 g/dl), the glucose concentration in the skin sample was varied through passive diffusion. The achieved detection limit for glucose in epidermal skin is 100 mg/dl (SNR=1). Although this lies within the human physiological range (30-500 mg/dl) further improvements are necessary to non-invasively monitor glucose levels of diabetes patients. Furthermore spectra of epidermal tissue with and without glucose content have been recorded with the tunable quantum-cascade laser, indicating that epidermal constituents do not impair glucose detection.

Abstract

No reliable non-invasive glucose monitoring devices are currently available. We implemented a mid-infrared (MIR) photoacoustic (PA) setup to track glucose in vitro in deep epidermal layers, which represents a significant step towards non-invasive in vivo glucose measurements using MIR light. An external-cavity quantum-cascade laser (1010-1095 cm(-1)) and a PA cell of only 78 mm(3) volume were employed to monitor glucose in epidermal skin. Skin samples are characterized by a high water content. Such samples investigated with an open-ended PA cell lead to varying conditions in the PA chamber (i.e., change of light absorption or relative humidity) and cause unstable signals. To circumvent variations in relative humidity and possible water condensation, the PA chamber was constantly ventilated by a 10 sccm N(2) flow. By bringing the epidermal skin samples in contact with aqueous glucose solutions with different concentrations (i.e., 0.1-10 g/dl), the glucose concentration in the skin sample was varied through passive diffusion. The achieved detection limit for glucose in epidermal skin is 100 mg/dl (SNR=1). Although this lies within the human physiological range (30-500 mg/dl) further improvements are necessary to non-invasively monitor glucose levels of diabetes patients. Furthermore spectra of epidermal tissue with and without glucose content have been recorded with the tunable quantum-cascade laser, indicating that epidermal constituents do not impair glucose detection.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:18 Dec 2012 10:10
Last Modified:17 Feb 2018 00:16
Publisher:Optical Society of America
ISSN:2156-7085
OA Status:Green
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.3.000667
PubMed ID:22574256

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