Sensory input from the periphery to the brain can be severely compromised or completely abolished after an injury to the spinal cord. Evidence from animal models suggests that endogenous repair processes in the spinal cord mediate extensive sprouting and that this might be further attenuated by targeted therapeutic interventions. However, the extent to which sprouting can contribute to spontaneous recovery after human spinal cord injury (SCI) remains largely unknown, in part because few measurement tools are available in order to non-invasively detect subtle changes in neurophysiology. The proposed application of segmental sensory evoked potentials (e.g., dermatomal contact heat evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials) to assess conduction in ascending pathways (i.e., spinothalamic and dorsal column, respectively) differs from conventional approaches in that individual spinal segments adjacent to the level of lesion are examined. The adoption of these approaches into clinical research might provide improved resolution for measuring changes in sensory impairments and might determine the extent by which spontaneous recovery after SCI is mediated by similar endogenous repair mechanisms in humans as in animal models.