Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) represents a promising option for managing treatment-refractory neurogenic bladder dysfunction. It remains to be seen, however, which types of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and which underlying neurological disorders best respond to SNM. Constant improvements in SNM have been achieved and it is now a minimally invasive approach performed under local anesthesia which should be considered before undertaking larger reconstructive procedures. An electrode is implanted in the S3 or S4 sacral foramen and during a test phase lasting for days to weeks the patient keeps a bladder diary to determine whether SNM has provided a relevant benefit. If the results of the test phase are positive, a neuromodulator is implanted in the gluteal area (or more rarely in the abdominal wall).The mechanism of action of SNM has not been completely clarified, but the afferent nerves most likely play a key role. It appears that SNM produces a modulation of medullary reflexes and brain centers by peripheral afferents. The implanted neuromodulation system does not lead to limitation of the patient's activities. However, it should be noted that high-frequency diathermy and unipolar electrocauterization are contraindicated in patients with neuromodulators, that during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy the focal point should not be in the direct vicinity of the neuromodulator or the electrode, that ultrasound and radiotherapy in the region of the implanted components should be avoided, that the neuromodulation should be discontinued in pregnancy, and that MRI examinations should only be conducted when urgently indicated and the neuromodulator is turned off.