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The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the Opitz syndrome gene, madd-2/Mid1, regulates anchor cell invasion during vulval development


Morf, Matthias K; Rimann, Ivo; Alexander, Mariam; Roy, Peter; Hajnal, Alex (2013). The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the Opitz syndrome gene, madd-2/Mid1, regulates anchor cell invasion during vulval development. Developmental Biology, 374(1):108-114.

Abstract

Mutations in the human Mid1 gene cause Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which is characterized by various midline closure defects. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Mid1, madd-2, positively regulates signaling by the unc-40 Netrin receptor during the extension of muscle arms to the midline and in axon guidance and branching. During uterine development, a specialized cell called anchor cell (AC) breaches the basal laminae separating the uterus from the epidermis and invades the underlying vulval tissue. AC invasion is guided by an UNC-6 Netrin signal from the ventral nerve cord and an unknown guidance signal from the vulval cells. Using genetic epistasis analysis, we show that madd-2 regulates AC invasion downstream of or in parallel with the Netrin signaling pathway. Measurements of AC shape, polarity and dynamics indicate that MADD-2 prevents the formation of ectopic AC protrusions in the absence of guidance signals. We propose that MADD-2 represses the intrinsic invasive capacity of the AC, while the Netrin and vulval guidance cues locally overcome this inhibitory activity of MADD-2 to guide the AC ventrally into the vulval tissue. Therefore, developmental cell invasion depends on a precise balance between pro- and anti-invasive factors.

Abstract

Mutations in the human Mid1 gene cause Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which is characterized by various midline closure defects. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Mid1, madd-2, positively regulates signaling by the unc-40 Netrin receptor during the extension of muscle arms to the midline and in axon guidance and branching. During uterine development, a specialized cell called anchor cell (AC) breaches the basal laminae separating the uterus from the epidermis and invades the underlying vulval tissue. AC invasion is guided by an UNC-6 Netrin signal from the ventral nerve cord and an unknown guidance signal from the vulval cells. Using genetic epistasis analysis, we show that madd-2 regulates AC invasion downstream of or in parallel with the Netrin signaling pathway. Measurements of AC shape, polarity and dynamics indicate that MADD-2 prevents the formation of ectopic AC protrusions in the absence of guidance signals. We propose that MADD-2 represses the intrinsic invasive capacity of the AC, while the Netrin and vulval guidance cues locally overcome this inhibitory activity of MADD-2 to guide the AC ventrally into the vulval tissue. Therefore, developmental cell invasion depends on a precise balance between pro- and anti-invasive factors.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Anchor cell, Invasion, Opitz syndrome, Mid1, Netrin, Caenorhabditis elegans
Language:English
Date:1 February 2013
Deposited On:10 Jan 2013 11:53
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:14
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0012-1606
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.11.019
PubMed ID:23201576

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