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Regional activation of the cancer genome by long-range epigenetic remodeling


Bert, Saul A; Robinson, Mark D; Strbenac, Dario; Statham, Aaron L; Song, Jenny Z; Hulf, Toby; Sutherland, Robert L; Coolen, Marcel W; Stirzaker, Clare; Clark, Susan J (2013). Regional activation of the cancer genome by long-range epigenetic remodeling. Cancer Cell, 23(1):9-22.

Abstract

Epigenetic gene deregulation in cancer commonly occurs through chromatin repression and promoter hypermethylation of tumor-associated genes. However, the mechanism underpinning epigenetic-based gene activation in carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of domain gene deregulation through coordinated long-range epigenetic activation (LREA) of regions that typically span 1 Mb and harbor key oncogenes, microRNAs, and cancer biomarker genes. Gene promoters within LREA domains are characterized by a gain of active chromatin marks and a loss of repressive marks. Notably, although promoter hypomethylation is uncommon, we show that extensive DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands or "CpG-island borders" is strongly related to cancer-specific gene activation or differential promoter usage. These findings have wide ramifications for cancer diagnosis, progression, and epigenetic-based gene therapies.

Abstract

Epigenetic gene deregulation in cancer commonly occurs through chromatin repression and promoter hypermethylation of tumor-associated genes. However, the mechanism underpinning epigenetic-based gene activation in carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of domain gene deregulation through coordinated long-range epigenetic activation (LREA) of regions that typically span 1 Mb and harbor key oncogenes, microRNAs, and cancer biomarker genes. Gene promoters within LREA domains are characterized by a gain of active chromatin marks and a loss of repressive marks. Notably, although promoter hypomethylation is uncommon, we show that extensive DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands or "CpG-island borders" is strongly related to cancer-specific gene activation or differential promoter usage. These findings have wide ramifications for cancer diagnosis, progression, and epigenetic-based gene therapies.

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80 citations in Web of Science®
86 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:13 Mar 2013 12:04
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:19
Publisher:Cell Press
ISSN:1535-6108
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2012.11.006
PubMed ID:23245995

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