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Craniofacial landmarks in young children: how reliable are measurements based on 3-dimensional imaging?


Metzler, Philipp; Bruegger, Lea S; Kruse Gujer, Astrid L; Matthews, Felix; Zemann, Wolfgang; Graetz, Klaus W; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo (2012). Craniofacial landmarks in young children: how reliable are measurements based on 3-dimensional imaging? Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 23(6):1790-1795.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Different approaches for 3-dimensional (3D) data acquisition of the facial surface are common nowadays. Meticulous evaluation has proven their level of precision and accuracy. However, the question remains as to which level of craniofacial landmarks, especially in young children, are reliable if identified in 3D images. Potential sources of error, aside from the systems technology itself, need to be identified and addressed. Reliable and unreliable landmarks have to be identified.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3dMDface System was used in a clinical setting to evaluate the intraobserver repeatability of 27 craniofacial landmarks in 7 young children between 6 and 18 months of age with a total of 1134 measurements.
RESULTS: The handling of the system was mostly unproblematic. The mean 3D repeatability error was 0.82 mm, with a range of 0.26 mm to 2.40 mm, depending on the landmark. Single landmarks that have been shown to be relatively imprecise in 3D analysis could still provide highly accurate data if only 1 of the 3 spatial planes was relevant. There were no statistical differences from 1 patient to another.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliability in craniofacial measurements can be achieved by such 3D soft-tissue imaging techniques as the 3dMDface System, but one must always be aware that the degree of precision is strictly dependent on the landmark and axis in question.For further clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for each landmark evaluated must be addressed and taken into account.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Different approaches for 3-dimensional (3D) data acquisition of the facial surface are common nowadays. Meticulous evaluation has proven their level of precision and accuracy. However, the question remains as to which level of craniofacial landmarks, especially in young children, are reliable if identified in 3D images. Potential sources of error, aside from the systems technology itself, need to be identified and addressed. Reliable and unreliable landmarks have to be identified.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3dMDface System was used in a clinical setting to evaluate the intraobserver repeatability of 27 craniofacial landmarks in 7 young children between 6 and 18 months of age with a total of 1134 measurements.
RESULTS: The handling of the system was mostly unproblematic. The mean 3D repeatability error was 0.82 mm, with a range of 0.26 mm to 2.40 mm, depending on the landmark. Single landmarks that have been shown to be relatively imprecise in 3D analysis could still provide highly accurate data if only 1 of the 3 spatial planes was relevant. There were no statistical differences from 1 patient to another.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliability in craniofacial measurements can be achieved by such 3D soft-tissue imaging techniques as the 3dMDface System, but one must always be aware that the degree of precision is strictly dependent on the landmark and axis in question.For further clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for each landmark evaluated must be addressed and taken into account.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:28 Jan 2013 08:11
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:20
Publisher:Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:1049-2275
Additional Information:This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Metzler, Philipp; Bruegger, Lea S; Kruse Gujer, Astrid L; Matthews, Felix; Zemann, Wolfgang; Graetz, Klaus W; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo (2012). Craniofacial landmarks in young children: how reliable are measurements based on 3-dimensional imaging? Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 23(6):1790-1795.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e318270fa8f
PubMed ID:23147340

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