Psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to disturbed self-recognition and to disturbed experience of agency. Possibly, these impairments contribute to first-person large-scale egocentric learning deficits. Sixteen inpatients with schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view, lacked any topographical landmarks and afforded egocentric navigation strategies. The participants with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar but weaker pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Especially the activity of task-relevant brain regions (precuneus and posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex) differed from that of controls across all trials of the task. Activity increase within the right-sided precuneus was related to worse virtual maze performance and to stronger positive symptoms in participants with schizophrenia. We suggest that psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to aberrant neural activity within the precuneus. Possibly, first-person large-scale egocentric navigation and learning designs may be a feasible tool for the assessment and treatment of cognitive deficits related to self-recognition in patients with schizophrenia.