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4D flow MRI


Markl, Michael; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Kozerke, Sebastian; Hope, Mike; Wieben, Oliver (2012). 4D flow MRI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (JMRI), 36(5):1015-1036.

Abstract

Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of flow using phase contrast (PC) methods is accomplished using methods that resolve single-directional flow in two spatial dimensions (2D) of an individual slice. More recently, three-dimensional (3D) spatial encoding combined with three-directional velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI (here termed 4D flow MRI) has drawn increased attention. 4D flow MRI offers the ability to measure and to visualize the temporal evolution of complex blood flow patterns within an acquired 3D volume. Various methodological improvements permit the acquisition of 4D flow MRI data encompassing individual vascular structures and entire vascular territories such as the heart, the adjacent aorta, the carotid arteries, abdominal, or peripheral vessels within reasonable scan times. To subsequently analyze the flow data by quantitative means and visualization of complex, three-directional blood flow patterns, various tools have been proposed. This review intends to introduce currently used 4D flow MRI methods, including Cartesian and radial data acquisition, approaches for accelerated data acquisition, cardiac gating, and respiration control. Based on these developments, an overview is provided over the potential this new imaging technique has in different parts of the body from the head to the peripheral arteries.

Abstract

Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of flow using phase contrast (PC) methods is accomplished using methods that resolve single-directional flow in two spatial dimensions (2D) of an individual slice. More recently, three-dimensional (3D) spatial encoding combined with three-directional velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI (here termed 4D flow MRI) has drawn increased attention. 4D flow MRI offers the ability to measure and to visualize the temporal evolution of complex blood flow patterns within an acquired 3D volume. Various methodological improvements permit the acquisition of 4D flow MRI data encompassing individual vascular structures and entire vascular territories such as the heart, the adjacent aorta, the carotid arteries, abdominal, or peripheral vessels within reasonable scan times. To subsequently analyze the flow data by quantitative means and visualization of complex, three-directional blood flow patterns, various tools have been proposed. This review intends to introduce currently used 4D flow MRI methods, including Cartesian and radial data acquisition, approaches for accelerated data acquisition, cardiac gating, and respiration control. Based on these developments, an overview is provided over the potential this new imaging technique has in different parts of the body from the head to the peripheral arteries.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:14 Feb 2013 10:03
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:26
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:1053-1807
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23632

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