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Novel KIF7 mutations extend the phenotypic spectrum of acrocallosal syndrome


Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is a rare recessive disorder characterised by corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism, duplication of the hallux, postaxial polydactyly, and severe mental retardation. Recently, we identified mutations in KIF7, a key component of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, as being responsible for this syndrome.
METHODS: We sequenced KIF7 in five suspected ACLS cases, one fetus and four patients, based on facial dysmorphism and brain anomalies.
RESULTS: Seven mutations were identified at the KIF7 locus in these five cases, six of which are novel. We describe the first four compound heterozygous cases. In all patients, the diagnosis was suspected based on the craniofacial features, despite the absence of corpus callosum anomaly in one and of polydactyly in another. Hallux duplication was absent in 4/5 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that ACLS has a variable expressivity and can be diagnosed even in the absence of the two major features, namely polydactyly or agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Facial dysmorphism with hypertelorism and prominent forehead in all the cases, as well as vermis dysgenesis with brainstem anomalies (molar tooth sign), strongly indicated the diagnosis. KIF7 should be tested in less typical patients in whom craniofacial features are suggestive of ACLS.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is a rare recessive disorder characterised by corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism, duplication of the hallux, postaxial polydactyly, and severe mental retardation. Recently, we identified mutations in KIF7, a key component of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, as being responsible for this syndrome.
METHODS: We sequenced KIF7 in five suspected ACLS cases, one fetus and four patients, based on facial dysmorphism and brain anomalies.
RESULTS: Seven mutations were identified at the KIF7 locus in these five cases, six of which are novel. We describe the first four compound heterozygous cases. In all patients, the diagnosis was suspected based on the craniofacial features, despite the absence of corpus callosum anomaly in one and of polydactyly in another. Hallux duplication was absent in 4/5 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that ACLS has a variable expressivity and can be diagnosed even in the absence of the two major features, namely polydactyly or agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Facial dysmorphism with hypertelorism and prominent forehead in all the cases, as well as vermis dysgenesis with brainstem anomalies (molar tooth sign), strongly indicated the diagnosis. KIF7 should be tested in less typical patients in whom craniofacial features are suggestive of ACLS.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:14 Feb 2013 10:14
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 19:07
Publisher:BMJ Group
ISSN:0022-2593
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101016
PubMed ID:23125460

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