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B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonography of the milk vein and musculophrenic vein in eight cows during lactation


Braun, Ueli; Forster, E; Bleul, Ulrich; Hässig, Michael; Schwarzwald, Colin C (2013). B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonography of the milk vein and musculophrenic vein in eight cows during lactation. Research in Veterinary Science, 94(1):138-143.

Abstract

Eight cows underwent Doppler sonographic examinations of the milk vein and musculophrenic vein from 9 days prepartum to 300 days postpartum. A 7.5-MHz linear transducer was used to determine the inner diameter of the veins and blood flow velocities and volumes on the left side in standing, non-sedated animals. Cows were weighed and milk yield measured at all examination times. The milk vein appeared as a vessel with an inner diameter of 2.01-2.30 cm immediately beneath the skin. The maximum blood flow velocity ranged from 23.84 to 35.76 cm/s before parturition, increased markedly on the day of calving (day 0), peaked at 61.14 cm/s on day 1 and slowly decreased to 23.84 cm/s by day 300. The profiles of the minimum and mean maximum flow velocities and flow volume were similar. The musculophrenic vein had an inner diameter of 0.76-1.07 cm and its distance from the surface of the skin was 1.15-1.31 cm. The profiles of the blood flow variables were irregular and did not resemble those of the milk vein. The maximum blood flow velocity ranged from 87.35 to 114.41 cm/s, the minimum velocity from 5.47 to 7.60 cm/s, the mean maximum velocity from 48.55 to 78.74 cm/s and the blood flow volume from 1.02 to 2.44 l/min. The milk vein had a larger diameter (2.16 versus 0.90 cm; P<0.01), smaller maximum, minimum and mean maximum blood flow velocities (P<0.01) and a larger blood flow volume than the musculophrenic vein (P<0.01).

Abstract

Eight cows underwent Doppler sonographic examinations of the milk vein and musculophrenic vein from 9 days prepartum to 300 days postpartum. A 7.5-MHz linear transducer was used to determine the inner diameter of the veins and blood flow velocities and volumes on the left side in standing, non-sedated animals. Cows were weighed and milk yield measured at all examination times. The milk vein appeared as a vessel with an inner diameter of 2.01-2.30 cm immediately beneath the skin. The maximum blood flow velocity ranged from 23.84 to 35.76 cm/s before parturition, increased markedly on the day of calving (day 0), peaked at 61.14 cm/s on day 1 and slowly decreased to 23.84 cm/s by day 300. The profiles of the minimum and mean maximum flow velocities and flow volume were similar. The musculophrenic vein had an inner diameter of 0.76-1.07 cm and its distance from the surface of the skin was 1.15-1.31 cm. The profiles of the blood flow variables were irregular and did not resemble those of the milk vein. The maximum blood flow velocity ranged from 87.35 to 114.41 cm/s, the minimum velocity from 5.47 to 7.60 cm/s, the mean maximum velocity from 48.55 to 78.74 cm/s and the blood flow volume from 1.02 to 2.44 l/min. The milk vein had a larger diameter (2.16 versus 0.90 cm; P<0.01), smaller maximum, minimum and mean maximum blood flow velocities (P<0.01) and a larger blood flow volume than the musculophrenic vein (P<0.01).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cattle, Colour Doppler ultrasonography, Milk vein, Musculophrenic vein, Lactation
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:22 Feb 2013 09:30
Last Modified:16 Feb 2018 17:32
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0034-5288
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.07.034
PubMed ID:22925935

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