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Prognostic factors for impaired plasma sodium homeostasis after transsphenoidal surgery


Staiger, R D; Sarnthein, J; Wiesli, P; Schmid, C; Bernays, R L (2012). Prognostic factors for impaired plasma sodium homeostasis after transsphenoidal surgery. British Journal of Neurosurgery, 27(1):63-68.

Abstract

Abstract Objective. Surgical manipulation of the pituitary stalk, neurohypophysis or the hypothalamus may disturb control of the plasma sodium level. The factors that might predict the risk of postoperative sodium imbalance are not clear, and were investigated in this study. Methods. A retrospective survey of 129 surgical records for the occurrence of plasma sodium levels outside the normal range, following transsphenoidal procedures. Median patient age was 49 (range 20-78) years, 65 female. 73 of the operated lesions were non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Patients were considered to have impaired plasma sodium balance if the range of 135-145 mmol/L was not maintained. Results. Of all 129 surgical cases, 68 (53%) experienced an imbalance in sodium levels. Severe sodium imbalance (≥ 149 or ≤ 131 mmol/L) was observed in 28 patients (22%). 13 showed hypernatraemia (median day 1), and 15 hyponatraemia (median day 6). Tumour size was associated with an increased incidence of sodium imbalance, particularly in patients younger than 49 years; surgery resulted in sodium imbalance in 38% of young patients operated on for tumours < 22 mm and in 76% of young patients, operated on for tumours ≥ 22 mm. Overall, tumour size increased with patients' age, and tumour size was less predictive for sodium disturbances in elderly patients. Median time in hospital was 5 days for patients without sodium imbalance, 6 days for patients with hypernatraemia and 11 days for patients with hyponatraemia. Conclusions. Following pituitary surgery, patients with large tumours, in particular those of young age, are at higher risk for losing control of their plasma sodium level. Increased ADH secretion (hyponatraemia), but not transient diabetes insipidus was associated with a prolonged hospital stay. Postoperative follow-up of patients with sellar tumours should include careful monitoring of plasma sodium levels within the first two postoperative weeks and clear patients' instructions.

Abstract

Abstract Objective. Surgical manipulation of the pituitary stalk, neurohypophysis or the hypothalamus may disturb control of the plasma sodium level. The factors that might predict the risk of postoperative sodium imbalance are not clear, and were investigated in this study. Methods. A retrospective survey of 129 surgical records for the occurrence of plasma sodium levels outside the normal range, following transsphenoidal procedures. Median patient age was 49 (range 20-78) years, 65 female. 73 of the operated lesions were non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Patients were considered to have impaired plasma sodium balance if the range of 135-145 mmol/L was not maintained. Results. Of all 129 surgical cases, 68 (53%) experienced an imbalance in sodium levels. Severe sodium imbalance (≥ 149 or ≤ 131 mmol/L) was observed in 28 patients (22%). 13 showed hypernatraemia (median day 1), and 15 hyponatraemia (median day 6). Tumour size was associated with an increased incidence of sodium imbalance, particularly in patients younger than 49 years; surgery resulted in sodium imbalance in 38% of young patients operated on for tumours < 22 mm and in 76% of young patients, operated on for tumours ≥ 22 mm. Overall, tumour size increased with patients' age, and tumour size was less predictive for sodium disturbances in elderly patients. Median time in hospital was 5 days for patients without sodium imbalance, 6 days for patients with hypernatraemia and 11 days for patients with hyponatraemia. Conclusions. Following pituitary surgery, patients with large tumours, in particular those of young age, are at higher risk for losing control of their plasma sodium level. Increased ADH secretion (hyponatraemia), but not transient diabetes insipidus was associated with a prolonged hospital stay. Postoperative follow-up of patients with sellar tumours should include careful monitoring of plasma sodium levels within the first two postoperative weeks and clear patients' instructions.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:12 Feb 2013 14:34
Last Modified:17 Feb 2018 01:03
Publisher:Informa Healthcare
ISSN:0268-8697
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3109/02688697.2012.714013
PubMed ID:22905890

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