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Therapeutic hypothermia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, refractory intracranial hypertension, or cerebral vasospasm


Seule, M; Muroi, C; Mink, S; Yonekawa, Y; Keller, E (2009). Therapeutic hypothermia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, refractory intracranial hypertension, or cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery, 64(1):86-92; discussion 92-93.

Abstract

To evaluate the feasibility and safety of mild hypothermia treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who are experiencing intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm (CVS). METHODS: Of 441 consecutive patients with SAH, 100 developed elevated intracranial pressure and/or symptomatic CVS refractory to conventional treatment. Hypothermia (33-34 degrees C) was induced and maintained until intracranial pressure normalized, CVS resolved, or severe side effects occurred. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were treated with hypothermia alone, and 87 were treated with hypothermia in combination with barbiturate coma. Sixty-six patients experienced poor-grade SAH (Hunt and Hess Grades IV and V) and 92 had Fisher Grade 3 and 4 bleedings. The mean duration of hypothermia was 169 +/- 104 hours, with a maximum of 16.4 days. The outcome after 1 year was evaluated in 90 of 100 patients. Thirty-two patients (35.6%) survived with good functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score, 4 and 5), 14 (15.5%) were severely disabled (GOS score, 3), 1 (1.1%) was in a vegetative state (GOS score, 2), and 43 (47.8%) died (GOS score, 1). The most frequent side effects were electrolyte disorders (77%), pneumonia (52%), thrombocytopenia (47%), and septic shock syndrome (40%). Of 93 patients with severe side effects, 6 (6.5%) died as a result of respiratory or multi-organ failure. CONCLUSION: Prolonged systemic hypothermia may be considered as a last-resort option for a carefully selected group of SAH patients with intracranial hypertension or CVS resistant to conventional treatment. However, complications associated with hypothermia require elaborate protocols in general intensive care unit management.

Abstract

To evaluate the feasibility and safety of mild hypothermia treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who are experiencing intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm (CVS). METHODS: Of 441 consecutive patients with SAH, 100 developed elevated intracranial pressure and/or symptomatic CVS refractory to conventional treatment. Hypothermia (33-34 degrees C) was induced and maintained until intracranial pressure normalized, CVS resolved, or severe side effects occurred. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were treated with hypothermia alone, and 87 were treated with hypothermia in combination with barbiturate coma. Sixty-six patients experienced poor-grade SAH (Hunt and Hess Grades IV and V) and 92 had Fisher Grade 3 and 4 bleedings. The mean duration of hypothermia was 169 +/- 104 hours, with a maximum of 16.4 days. The outcome after 1 year was evaluated in 90 of 100 patients. Thirty-two patients (35.6%) survived with good functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score, 4 and 5), 14 (15.5%) were severely disabled (GOS score, 3), 1 (1.1%) was in a vegetative state (GOS score, 2), and 43 (47.8%) died (GOS score, 1). The most frequent side effects were electrolyte disorders (77%), pneumonia (52%), thrombocytopenia (47%), and septic shock syndrome (40%). Of 93 patients with severe side effects, 6 (6.5%) died as a result of respiratory or multi-organ failure. CONCLUSION: Prolonged systemic hypothermia may be considered as a last-resort option for a carefully selected group of SAH patients with intracranial hypertension or CVS resistant to conventional treatment. However, complications associated with hypothermia require elaborate protocols in general intensive care unit management.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:22 January 2009
Deposited On:06 Apr 2009 14:38
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 15:47
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0148-396X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000336312.32773.A0
PubMed ID:19050656

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