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The Armadillo repeat gene ZAK IXIK promotes Arabidopsis early embryo and endosperm development through a distinctive gametophytic maternal effect


Ngo, Quy A; Baroux, Celia; Guthörl, Daniela; Mozerov, Peter; Collinge, Margaret A; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Grossniklaus, Ueli (2012). The Armadillo repeat gene ZAK IXIK promotes Arabidopsis early embryo and endosperm development through a distinctive gametophytic maternal effect. Plant Cell, 24(10):4026-4043.

Abstract

The proper balance of parental genomic contributions to the fertilized embryo and endosperm is essential for their normal growth and development. The characterization of many gametophytic maternal effect (GME) mutants affecting seed development indicates that there are certain classes of genes with a predominant maternal contribution. We present a detailed analysis of the GME mutant zak ixik (zix), which displays delayed and arrested growth at the earliest stages of embryo and endosperm development. ZIX encodes an Armadillo repeat (Arm) protein highly conserved across eukaryotes. Expression studies revealed that ZIX manifests a GME through preferential maternal expression in the early embryo and endosperm. This parent-of-origin-dependent expression is regulated by neither the histone and DNA methylation nor the DNA demethylation pathways known to regulate some other GME mutants. The ZIX protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells in reproductive tissues and actively dividing root zones. The maternal ZIX allele is required for the maternal expression of miniseed3. Collectively, our results reveal a reproductive function of plant Arm proteins in promoting early seed growth, which is achieved through a distinct GME of ZIX that involves mechanisms for maternal allele-specific expression that are independent of the well-established pathways.

Abstract

The proper balance of parental genomic contributions to the fertilized embryo and endosperm is essential for their normal growth and development. The characterization of many gametophytic maternal effect (GME) mutants affecting seed development indicates that there are certain classes of genes with a predominant maternal contribution. We present a detailed analysis of the GME mutant zak ixik (zix), which displays delayed and arrested growth at the earliest stages of embryo and endosperm development. ZIX encodes an Armadillo repeat (Arm) protein highly conserved across eukaryotes. Expression studies revealed that ZIX manifests a GME through preferential maternal expression in the early embryo and endosperm. This parent-of-origin-dependent expression is regulated by neither the histone and DNA methylation nor the DNA demethylation pathways known to regulate some other GME mutants. The ZIX protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells in reproductive tissues and actively dividing root zones. The maternal ZIX allele is required for the maternal expression of miniseed3. Collectively, our results reveal a reproductive function of plant Arm proteins in promoting early seed growth, which is achieved through a distinct GME of ZIX that involves mechanisms for maternal allele-specific expression that are independent of the well-established pathways.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:22 Feb 2013 15:01
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 19:54
Publisher:American Society of Plant Biologists
ISSN:1040-4651
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.112.102384
PubMed ID:23064319

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