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A neurophysiological marker of impaired preparation in an 11-year follow-up study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)


Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph (2013). A neurophysiological marker of impaired preparation in an 11-year follow-up study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3):260-270.

Abstract

Background:  This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls.
Methods:  Subjects with ADHD (N = 11) and normal controls (N = 12) diagnosed in childhood [mean age ADHD/CTRL = 10.9 years [SD 1.72]/10.0 years (SD 1.03)] were followed up after 1.1 and 2.4 years, and as young adults [ADHD/CTRL: 21.9 years (SD 1.46)/21.1 years (SD 1.29)]. At all four times, event-related potential (ERP) maps were recorded during a cued continuous performance test (CPT). We focused on residual deficits as adults, and on developmental trajectories (time and time × group effects) for CPT performance and attentional (Cue P300), preparatory (CNV: contingent negative variation) and inhibitory (NoGo P300) ERP components.
Results:  All ERP components developed without significant time × group interactions. Only the CNV remained reduced in the ADHD group, although 8/11 individuals no longer met a full ADHD diagnosis as adults. Cue P300 and NoGo P300 group differences became nonsignificant in early adulthood. The CNV parameters correlated with reaction time (RT) and RT-SD. Perceptual sensitivity improved and the groups' trajectories converged with development, while RT-SD continued to be elevated in adult ADHD subjects.
Conclusions:  Attentional and preparatory deficits in ADHD continue into adulthood, and the attenuated CNV appears to reflect a particularly stable ADHD marker. Although some deficit reductions may have gone undetected due to small sample size, the findings challenge those developmental lag models postulating that most ADHD-related deficits become negligible with brain maturation.

Abstract

Background:  This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls.
Methods:  Subjects with ADHD (N = 11) and normal controls (N = 12) diagnosed in childhood [mean age ADHD/CTRL = 10.9 years [SD 1.72]/10.0 years (SD 1.03)] were followed up after 1.1 and 2.4 years, and as young adults [ADHD/CTRL: 21.9 years (SD 1.46)/21.1 years (SD 1.29)]. At all four times, event-related potential (ERP) maps were recorded during a cued continuous performance test (CPT). We focused on residual deficits as adults, and on developmental trajectories (time and time × group effects) for CPT performance and attentional (Cue P300), preparatory (CNV: contingent negative variation) and inhibitory (NoGo P300) ERP components.
Results:  All ERP components developed without significant time × group interactions. Only the CNV remained reduced in the ADHD group, although 8/11 individuals no longer met a full ADHD diagnosis as adults. Cue P300 and NoGo P300 group differences became nonsignificant in early adulthood. The CNV parameters correlated with reaction time (RT) and RT-SD. Perceptual sensitivity improved and the groups' trajectories converged with development, while RT-SD continued to be elevated in adult ADHD subjects.
Conclusions:  Attentional and preparatory deficits in ADHD continue into adulthood, and the attenuated CNV appears to reflect a particularly stable ADHD marker. Although some deficit reductions may have gone undetected due to small sample size, the findings challenge those developmental lag models postulating that most ADHD-related deficits become negligible with brain maturation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:21 Mar 2013 14:09
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:33
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0021-9630
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02572.x
PubMed ID:22788246

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