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Pilot study: potential transcription markers for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in whole blood


Grünblatt, Edna; Geissler, Julia; Jacob, Christian P; Renner, Tobias; Müller, Maja; Bartl, Jasmin; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Riederer, Peter; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Walitza, Susanne; Gerlach, Manfred; Schmitt, Angelika (2012). Pilot study: potential transcription markers for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in whole blood. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 4(2):77-84.

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioural disorder that affects not only children and adolescents but also adults; however, diagnosis of adult ADHD is difficult because patients seem to have reduced externalized behaviour. ADHD is a multifactorial disorder in which many genes, all with small effects, are thought to cause the disorder in the presence of unfavourable environmental conditions. Therefore, in this pilot study, we explored the expression profile of a list of previously established candidate genes in peripheral blood samples from adult ADHD subjects (n = 108) and compared these results with those of healthy controls (n = 35). We demonstrate that combining the gene expression levels of dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), dopamine D5 receptor, tryptophan hydroxylase-1, and SNAP25 as predictors in a regression model resulted in sensitivity and specificity of over 80 % (ROC: max R(2) = 0.587, AUC = 0.917, P < 0.001, 95 % CI: 0.900-0.985). In conclusion, the combination of these four genes could represent a potential method for estimating risk and could be of diagnostic value for ADHD. Nevertheless, further investigation in a larger independent population including different subtypes of ADHD (inattentive, hyperactive, or combined type) patients is required to obtain more specific sets of biomarkers for each subtype as well as to differentiate between child, adolescent, and adulthood forms.

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioural disorder that affects not only children and adolescents but also adults; however, diagnosis of adult ADHD is difficult because patients seem to have reduced externalized behaviour. ADHD is a multifactorial disorder in which many genes, all with small effects, are thought to cause the disorder in the presence of unfavourable environmental conditions. Therefore, in this pilot study, we explored the expression profile of a list of previously established candidate genes in peripheral blood samples from adult ADHD subjects (n = 108) and compared these results with those of healthy controls (n = 35). We demonstrate that combining the gene expression levels of dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), dopamine D5 receptor, tryptophan hydroxylase-1, and SNAP25 as predictors in a regression model resulted in sensitivity and specificity of over 80 % (ROC: max R(2) = 0.587, AUC = 0.917, P < 0.001, 95 % CI: 0.900-0.985). In conclusion, the combination of these four genes could represent a potential method for estimating risk and could be of diagnostic value for ADHD. Nevertheless, further investigation in a larger independent population including different subtypes of ADHD (inattentive, hyperactive, or combined type) patients is required to obtain more specific sets of biomarkers for each subtype as well as to differentiate between child, adolescent, and adulthood forms.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetic; Adult ADHD; Peripheral; Biomarker; Biological psychiatry
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:01 Mar 2013 08:12
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:33
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1866-6116
Additional Information:Edna Grünblatt and Julia Geißler have contributed equally.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-012-0074-6
PubMed ID:22562805

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