The biological activity of interleukin (IL)-2 and other cytokines in vivo can be augmented by binding to certain anti-cytokine monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Here, we review evidence on how IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb complexes can be used to cause selective stimulation and expansion of certain T-cell subsets. With some anti-IL-2 mAbs, injection of IL-2/mAb complexes leads to expansion of CD8 T effector cells but not CD4 T regulatory cells (Tregs); these complexes exert less adverse side effects than soluble IL-2 and display powerful antitumor activity. Other IL-2/mAb complexes have minimal effects on CD8 T cells but cause marked expansion of Tregs. Preconditioning mice with these complexes leads to permanent acceptance of MHC-disparate pancreatic islets in the absence of immunosuppression.