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Muramyl dipeptide responsive pathways in Crohn's disease: from NOD2 and beyond


Salem, Mohammad; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Rogler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Ole Haagen (2013). Muramyl dipeptide responsive pathways in Crohn's disease: from NOD2 and beyond. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 70(18):3391-3404.

Abstract

Crohn's disease (CD) is one of main disease entities under the umbrella term chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of CD involves alterations in genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors. This review is devoted to the role of the bacterial wall compound muramyl dipeptide (MDP) for the activation of inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The importance of this molecule is underscored by the fact that (1) MDP, which is found in most Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, is able to trigger several immunological responses in the intestinal system, and (2) that alterations in several mediators of the MDP response including-but not restricted to-nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) are associated with CD. The normalization of MDP signaling is one of several important factors that influence the intestinal inflammatory response, a fact which emphasizes the pathogenic importance of MDP signaling for the pathogenesis of CD. The important aspects of NOD2 and non-NOD2 mediated effects of MDP for the development of CD are highlighted, as well as how alterations in these pathways might translate into the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Abstract

Crohn's disease (CD) is one of main disease entities under the umbrella term chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of CD involves alterations in genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors. This review is devoted to the role of the bacterial wall compound muramyl dipeptide (MDP) for the activation of inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The importance of this molecule is underscored by the fact that (1) MDP, which is found in most Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, is able to trigger several immunological responses in the intestinal system, and (2) that alterations in several mediators of the MDP response including-but not restricted to-nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) are associated with CD. The normalization of MDP signaling is one of several important factors that influence the intestinal inflammatory response, a fact which emphasizes the pathogenic importance of MDP signaling for the pathogenesis of CD. The important aspects of NOD2 and non-NOD2 mediated effects of MDP for the development of CD are highlighted, as well as how alterations in these pathways might translate into the development of new therapeutic strategies.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:13 Mar 2013 13:46
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:40
Publisher:Birkhäuser
ISSN:1420-682X
Additional Information:The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-012-1246-4
PubMed ID:23275943

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