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Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen of the goat. I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines


Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Steininger, K (2013). Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen of the goat. I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 155(3):173-184.

Abstract

This review article summarizes the ultrasonographic findings of the reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines of goats. Ultrasonographic examination is done on both sides with the goat in a standing position using a linear array or convex transducer with a frequency of 5.0 to 7.5 MHz. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum are assessed; this organ appears as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. There are 0.8 to 2.1 reticular contractions per minute, which may be mono-, bi- and triphasic. The rumen is examined from the 8th to 12th intercostal spaces (ICSs) and flank on the left, and from the 12th ICS and flank on the right. The ruminal wall appears as a thick echoic line. The dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen are differentiated based on the longitudinal groove, which forms an echoic notch. Differentiation of the dorsal gas cap, fibre mat and fluid layer is not always straightforward and varies among goats. The omasum is examined from the 6th to 11th ICSs on the right. Only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged and it appears as a crescent-shaped echoic line medial to the liver. The omasal folds and the wall furthest from the transducer cannot be seen. In about two thirds of goats, active omasal motility is apparent as a transient reduction in size of several centimetres, followed by relaxation and return to its original size. There is an average of 1.1 contractions per minute. The abomasum is examined from the ventral midline and the left and right paramedian regions and can always be seen from the ventral midline. In all but a few goats the abomasum is also visible from the left and right paramedian areas. It appears as a heterogeneous, moderately echoic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasal folds appear as prominent echoic bands in about two thirds of all goats. The small and large intestines are examined on the right from the 8th to the 12th ICSs. Loops of jejunum and ileum are seen mainly in cross-section and have a strong motility. The intestinal content is usually homogeneous and echoic and the diameter of the intestinal loops varies from 0.8 and 2.7 cm. The spiral colon and in many cases also the caecum can be imaged. The former is recognized by its garland-like appearance brought about by the centripetal and centrifugal coils of the intestine. In the spiral colon and the caecum, only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged because of intraluminal gas. The wall appears as a thick echoic and slightly undulating line 5.6 to 8.0 cm in length. Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that is very well suited for the examination of the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

Abstract

This review article summarizes the ultrasonographic findings of the reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines of goats. Ultrasonographic examination is done on both sides with the goat in a standing position using a linear array or convex transducer with a frequency of 5.0 to 7.5 MHz. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum are assessed; this organ appears as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. There are 0.8 to 2.1 reticular contractions per minute, which may be mono-, bi- and triphasic. The rumen is examined from the 8th to 12th intercostal spaces (ICSs) and flank on the left, and from the 12th ICS and flank on the right. The ruminal wall appears as a thick echoic line. The dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen are differentiated based on the longitudinal groove, which forms an echoic notch. Differentiation of the dorsal gas cap, fibre mat and fluid layer is not always straightforward and varies among goats. The omasum is examined from the 6th to 11th ICSs on the right. Only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged and it appears as a crescent-shaped echoic line medial to the liver. The omasal folds and the wall furthest from the transducer cannot be seen. In about two thirds of goats, active omasal motility is apparent as a transient reduction in size of several centimetres, followed by relaxation and return to its original size. There is an average of 1.1 contractions per minute. The abomasum is examined from the ventral midline and the left and right paramedian regions and can always be seen from the ventral midline. In all but a few goats the abomasum is also visible from the left and right paramedian areas. It appears as a heterogeneous, moderately echoic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasal folds appear as prominent echoic bands in about two thirds of all goats. The small and large intestines are examined on the right from the 8th to the 12th ICSs. Loops of jejunum and ileum are seen mainly in cross-section and have a strong motility. The intestinal content is usually homogeneous and echoic and the diameter of the intestinal loops varies from 0.8 and 2.7 cm. The spiral colon and in many cases also the caecum can be imaged. The former is recognized by its garland-like appearance brought about by the centripetal and centrifugal coils of the intestine. In the spiral colon and the caecum, only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged because of intraluminal gas. The wall appears as a thick echoic and slightly undulating line 5.6 to 8.0 cm in length. Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that is very well suited for the examination of the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:08 Apr 2013 13:17
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:43
Publisher:Hans Huber
ISSN:0036-7281
Additional Information:Diese Artikelfassung entspricht nicht vollständig dem in der Zeitschrift veröffentlichten Artikel. Dies ist nicht die Originalversion des Artikels und kann daher nicht zur Zitierung herangezogen werden.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281/a000441
PubMed ID:23454503

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