Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Investigating facial features of four types of laughter in historic illustrations


Ruch, Willibald; Hofmann, Jennifer; Platt, Tracey (2013). Investigating facial features of four types of laughter in historic illustrations. European Journal of Humour Research, 1(1):99-118.

Abstract

This study investigates the facial features of different laughter types in historic illustrations. Several conceptually different types of laughter were proposed in the historic literature, but only four types were represented in visual and verbal illustrations by four or more historic illustrators (joyful, intense, schadenfreude laughter, grinning). Study 1 examined the encoding of facial features in 18 illustrations by the Facial Action Coding System and study 2 investigated the decoding by laypeople. Illustrations of laughter involving a Duchenne Display (DD) were perceived as joyful irrespective of their initial classification. In intense laughter, the intensity of the zygomatic major muscle predicted the perception of intensity, but not the proposed changes in the upper face. In fact, "frowning" seemed to be antagonistic to the perception of joy. Schadenfreude and grinning did not have high recognition rates. Going along with the idea that schadenfreude is either a blend of a positive and negative emotion, or solely joy with attempts of masking it, it may entail additional features beyond the DD. Grinning was best represented by low intensity laughter, narrowed eye aperture and mouth prolonging actions. So far, only the DD could be reliably morphologically differentiated and recognized, supporting Darwin’s proposal of joyful laughter being the laughter prototype.

Abstract

This study investigates the facial features of different laughter types in historic illustrations. Several conceptually different types of laughter were proposed in the historic literature, but only four types were represented in visual and verbal illustrations by four or more historic illustrators (joyful, intense, schadenfreude laughter, grinning). Study 1 examined the encoding of facial features in 18 illustrations by the Facial Action Coding System and study 2 investigated the decoding by laypeople. Illustrations of laughter involving a Duchenne Display (DD) were perceived as joyful irrespective of their initial classification. In intense laughter, the intensity of the zygomatic major muscle predicted the perception of intensity, but not the proposed changes in the upper face. In fact, "frowning" seemed to be antagonistic to the perception of joy. Schadenfreude and grinning did not have high recognition rates. Going along with the idea that schadenfreude is either a blend of a positive and negative emotion, or solely joy with attempts of masking it, it may entail additional features beyond the DD. Grinning was best represented by low intensity laughter, narrowed eye aperture and mouth prolonging actions. So far, only the DD could be reliably morphologically differentiated and recognized, supporting Darwin’s proposal of joyful laughter being the laughter prototype.

Statistics

Downloads

144 downloads since deposited on 08 May 2013
29 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:DoktoratPsych
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:08 May 2013 11:52
Last Modified:26 Jan 2017 08:54
Publisher:The International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS)
ISSN:2307-700X
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Official URL:http://www.europeanjournalofhumour.org/index.php/ejhr/issue/view/First%20issue/showToc

Download

Preview Icon on Download
Preview
Content: Published Version
Language: English
Filetype: PDF
Size: 371kB

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations