A major concern regarding psychostimulant medication (amphetamine and methylphenidate) in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the potential adverse effects to the developing brain, particularly in regard to dopaminergic brain function. The present review focuses on the pharmacology of these psychostimulants, their mode of action in the human brain and their potential neurotoxic effects to the developing brain in animals, particularly concerning DA brain function. The potential clinical significance of these findings for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents is discussed. Studies on sensitization to psychostimulants' rewarding effects, which is a process expected to increase the risk of substance abuse in humans, are not included. The available findings in non-human primates support the notion that the administration of amphetamine and methylphenidate with procedures simulating clinical treatment conditions does not lead to long-term adverse effects in regard to development, neurobiology or behaviour as related to the central dopaminergic system.