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Differences in self-reported and behavioral measures of impulsivity in recreational and dependent cocaine users


Vonmoos, Matthias; Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Jenni, Daniela; Schulz, Claudia; Baumgartner, Markus R; Quednow, Boris B (2013). Differences in self-reported and behavioral measures of impulsivity in recreational and dependent cocaine users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(1):61-70.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dependent cocaine users consistently display increased trait impulsivity on self-report questionnaires and less consistently exhibit elevated motor impulsivity in some behavioral tasks. However, trait and behavioral impulsivity measures have rarely been investigated in recreational users. Therefore, we examined self-reported trait and motor impulsivities in recreational and dependent cocaine users to clarify the role of impulse control in cocaine addiction and non-dependent cocaine use. METHODS: We investigated relatively pure recreational (n=68) and dependent (n=30) cocaine users, as well as psychostimulant-naïve controls (n=68), with self-report questionnaires (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11; Temperament and Character Inventory) and behavioral tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing Task; Stop-Signal Task). RESULTS: Compared with controls, recreational and dependent cocaine users displayed higher trait impulsivity and novelty seeking scores on self-report questionnaires. Trait impulsivity scores were strongly associated with an increased number of symptoms of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and correlated significantly with long-term cocaine intake parameters. By contrast, none of the behavioral motor impulsivity measures showed significant group effects or correlated with cocaine use parameters. The correlations among the self-report measures were high, but self-reports were scarcely correlated with behavioral task measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that relatively pure cocaine users already display increased trait impulsivity at a recreational level of use. However, the results do not indicate any cocaine-related elevation of behavioral impulsivity in terms of motor or response inhibition. In summary, our data imply that elevated trait impulsivity is not a specific feature of dependent cocaine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dependent cocaine users consistently display increased trait impulsivity on self-report questionnaires and less consistently exhibit elevated motor impulsivity in some behavioral tasks. However, trait and behavioral impulsivity measures have rarely been investigated in recreational users. Therefore, we examined self-reported trait and motor impulsivities in recreational and dependent cocaine users to clarify the role of impulse control in cocaine addiction and non-dependent cocaine use. METHODS: We investigated relatively pure recreational (n=68) and dependent (n=30) cocaine users, as well as psychostimulant-naïve controls (n=68), with self-report questionnaires (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11; Temperament and Character Inventory) and behavioral tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing Task; Stop-Signal Task). RESULTS: Compared with controls, recreational and dependent cocaine users displayed higher trait impulsivity and novelty seeking scores on self-report questionnaires. Trait impulsivity scores were strongly associated with an increased number of symptoms of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and correlated significantly with long-term cocaine intake parameters. By contrast, none of the behavioral motor impulsivity measures showed significant group effects or correlated with cocaine use parameters. The correlations among the self-report measures were high, but self-reports were scarcely correlated with behavioral task measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that relatively pure cocaine users already display increased trait impulsivity at a recreational level of use. However, the results do not indicate any cocaine-related elevation of behavioral impulsivity in terms of motor or response inhibition. In summary, our data imply that elevated trait impulsivity is not a specific feature of dependent cocaine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Legal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:340 Law
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:24 June 2013
Deposited On:03 Jul 2013 13:39
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:51
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0376-8716
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.032
PubMed ID:23806872

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