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Kidney transport of amino acids and oligopeptides, and aminoacidurias


Camargo, S M R; Makrides, V; Kleta, R; Verrey, F (2013). Kidney transport of amino acids and oligopeptides, and aminoacidurias. In: Alpern, Robert J; Caplan, Michael J; Moe, Orson W. Seldin and Giebisch's THE KIDNEY. Physiology and Pathophysiology. USA: Elsevier, 2405-2423.

Abstract

Amino acids and small peptides are very efficiently reabsorbed at the level of the kidney proximal tubule by a series of specialized membrane proteins. In a first step, they are taken up into tubular epithelial cells via secondary active transporters localized at the luminal brush border membrane. Most of these amino acids as well as the amino acids generated by the intracellular hydrolysis of the di-/tripeptides are then transported out of the tubular cell across the basolateral membrane into the interstitial space. This second transport step is mediated by another set of transporters that function as facilitated diffusion pathways and obligatory exchangers. Besides reabsorbing amino acids, proximal tubule cells also contribute to body amino acid metabolism, for instance by producing L-arginine, L-tyrosine and L-serine or by metabolizing L-glutamine to produce ammonia for the urinary excretion of protons. Mutations of genes encoding luminal or basolateral amino acids transporters of proximal tubule cells can cause aminoacidurias and lead in some cases, for instance of cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), to severe diseases.

Abstract

Amino acids and small peptides are very efficiently reabsorbed at the level of the kidney proximal tubule by a series of specialized membrane proteins. In a first step, they are taken up into tubular epithelial cells via secondary active transporters localized at the luminal brush border membrane. Most of these amino acids as well as the amino acids generated by the intracellular hydrolysis of the di-/tripeptides are then transported out of the tubular cell across the basolateral membrane into the interstitial space. This second transport step is mediated by another set of transporters that function as facilitated diffusion pathways and obligatory exchangers. Besides reabsorbing amino acids, proximal tubule cells also contribute to body amino acid metabolism, for instance by producing L-arginine, L-tyrosine and L-serine or by metabolizing L-glutamine to produce ammonia for the urinary excretion of protons. Mutations of genes encoding luminal or basolateral amino acids transporters of proximal tubule cells can cause aminoacidurias and lead in some cases, for instance of cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), to severe diseases.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:19 Jul 2013 08:46
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:52
Publisher:Elsevier
Number:Volume 2
ISBN:978-0-1238-1462-3
Additional Information:5th Edition
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-381462-3.00071-9

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