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Nutrition and ultra-endurance: an overview


Knechtle, B (2013). Nutrition and ultra-endurance: an overview. In: Bagchi, D; Nair, S; Sen, C. Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance. Printed and bound in United States of America: Elsevier, 161-170.

Abstract

In ultra-endurance races, athletes face limits in nutrition regarding energy and fluid metabolism. An ultra-endurance performance lasting for 24 hours or longer leads to a mean daily energy deficit of ~7,000 kcal. This energy deficit leads to a decrease in body mass, covered by a decrease in both fat mass and skeletal muscle mass. The energy deficit cannot be prevented by adequate energy intake. To avoid dehydration during an ultra-endurance performance, adequate fluid intake is required. In case of fluid overload, both exercise-associated hyponatremia and swelling of limbs may occur. Adequate ad libitum fluid intake of ~300-400 ml per hour may prevent both exercise-associated hyponatremia and swelling of limbs. To summarize, in ultra-endurance races, an energy deficit seems to be unavoidable. Potential strategies might be to increase pre-race body mass by a diet to increase fat mass and/or strength training to augment skeletal muscle mass. Another possibility could be increasing energy intake during racing by consuming a fat-rich diet. However, future studies are required to investigate these aspects.

Abstract

In ultra-endurance races, athletes face limits in nutrition regarding energy and fluid metabolism. An ultra-endurance performance lasting for 24 hours or longer leads to a mean daily energy deficit of ~7,000 kcal. This energy deficit leads to a decrease in body mass, covered by a decrease in both fat mass and skeletal muscle mass. The energy deficit cannot be prevented by adequate energy intake. To avoid dehydration during an ultra-endurance performance, adequate fluid intake is required. In case of fluid overload, both exercise-associated hyponatremia and swelling of limbs may occur. Adequate ad libitum fluid intake of ~300-400 ml per hour may prevent both exercise-associated hyponatremia and swelling of limbs. To summarize, in ultra-endurance races, an energy deficit seems to be unavoidable. Potential strategies might be to increase pre-race body mass by a diet to increase fat mass and/or strength training to augment skeletal muscle mass. Another possibility could be increasing energy intake during racing by consuming a fat-rich diet. However, future studies are required to investigate these aspects.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, not refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:08 Jan 2015 10:37
Last Modified:23 Nov 2017 20:55
Publisher:Elsevier
ISBN:978-0-12-396454-0
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396454-0.00016-3

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