Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs-1-3) play an important role in steroid hormone-dependent gene expression and in modulating cell survival and proliferation. We analyzed their expression in a tissue microarray including 74 endometriosis samples and 30 normal endometrium controls. The mean HDAC-1 immunoreactivity score (IRS ± standard deviation) was 7.6 ± 2.5 in endometriosis and 5.3 ± 2.3 in normal endometrium (P < .001). In contrast, the IRSs of HDAC-2 and -3 were 11.7 ± 0.7 and 11.8 ± 1.1 in endometriosis and 11.6 ± 1.0 and 11.9 ± 0.4 in normal endometrium (P = .7 and P = .2), respectively. Significant correlations were found between HDAC-1 and estrogen (-alpha/-beta) and progesterone receptor expression. In conclusion, HDAC-1, but not HDAC-2/-3, was significantly increased in endometriosis and associated with steroid hormone receptor expression that may reflect interdependence. In context with the literature, specific inhibitors of HDAC-1 may have inhibitory activities similar to those of broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors and may be clinically tolerated, which would increase their chance as an option in the treatment of endometriosis.