The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by LC-MS/MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of co-regulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network.