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Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 9 influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection


Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Hersberger, Martin; Taffé, Patrick; Bochud, Murielle; Stein, Catherine M; Rodrigues, Stephanie D; Calandra, Thierry; Francioli, Patrick; Telenti, Amalio; Speck, Roberto F; Aderem, Alan (2007). Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 9 influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. AIDS, 21(4):441-446.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of HIV-1 infection is highly variable among individuals, at least in part as a result of genetic polymorphisms in the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a key role in innate immunity and mutations in the genes encoding these receptors have been associated with increased or decreased susceptibility to infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2-4 and TLR7-9 influenced the natural course of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Twenty-eight SNPs in TLRs were analysed in HAART-naive HIV-positive patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The SNPs were detected using Sequenom technology. Haplotypes were inferred using an expectation-maximization algorithm. The CD4 T cell decline was calculated using a least-squares regression. Patients with a rapid CD4 cell decline, less than the 15th percentile, were defined as rapid progressors. The risk of rapid progression associated with SNPs was estimated using a logistic regression model. Other candidate risk factors included age, sex and risk groups (heterosexual, homosexual and intravenous drug use). RESULTS: Two SNPs in TLR9 (1635A/G and +1174G/A) in linkage disequilibrium were associated with the rapid progressor phenotype: for 1635A/G, odds ratio (OR), 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI),1.7-9.2] for GA versus AA and OR, 4.7 (95% CI,1.9-12.0) for GG versus AA (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: Rapid progression of HIV-1 infection was associated with TLR9 polymorphisms. Because of its potential implications for intervention strategies and vaccine developments, additional epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to confirm this association.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of HIV-1 infection is highly variable among individuals, at least in part as a result of genetic polymorphisms in the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a key role in innate immunity and mutations in the genes encoding these receptors have been associated with increased or decreased susceptibility to infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2-4 and TLR7-9 influenced the natural course of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Twenty-eight SNPs in TLRs were analysed in HAART-naive HIV-positive patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The SNPs were detected using Sequenom technology. Haplotypes were inferred using an expectation-maximization algorithm. The CD4 T cell decline was calculated using a least-squares regression. Patients with a rapid CD4 cell decline, less than the 15th percentile, were defined as rapid progressors. The risk of rapid progression associated with SNPs was estimated using a logistic regression model. Other candidate risk factors included age, sex and risk groups (heterosexual, homosexual and intravenous drug use). RESULTS: Two SNPs in TLR9 (1635A/G and +1174G/A) in linkage disequilibrium were associated with the rapid progressor phenotype: for 1635A/G, odds ratio (OR), 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI),1.7-9.2] for GA versus AA and OR, 4.7 (95% CI,1.9-12.0) for GG versus AA (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: Rapid progression of HIV-1 infection was associated with TLR9 polymorphisms. Because of its potential implications for intervention strategies and vaccine developments, additional epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to confirm this association.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Date:2007
Deposited On:09 Oct 2013 14:01
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:02
Publisher:Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0269-9370
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e328012b8ac
PubMed ID:17301562

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