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Selection, genome-wide fitness effects and evolutionary rates in the model legume Medicago truncatula


Paape, Timothy; Bataillon, Thomas; Zhou, Peng; Kono, Tom J Y; Briskine, Roman; Young, Nevin D; Tiffin, Peter (2013). Selection, genome-wide fitness effects and evolutionary rates in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Molecular Ecology, 22(13):3525-3538.

Abstract

Sequence data for >20 000 annotated genes from 56 accessions of Medicago truncatula were used to identify potential targets of positive selection, the determinants of evolutionary rate variation and the relative importance of positive and purifying selection in shaping nucleotide diversity. Based upon patterns of intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, c. 50-75% of nonsynonymous polymorphisms are subject to strong purifying selection and 1% of the sampled genes harbour a signature of positive selection. Combining polymorphism with expression data, we estimated the distribution of fitness effects and found that the proportion of deleterious mutations is significantly greater for expressed genes than for genes with undetected transcripts (nonexpressed) in a previous RNA-seq experiment and greater for broadly expressed genes than those expressed in only a single tissue. Expression level is the strongest correlate of evolutionary rates at nonsynonymous sites, and despite multiple genomic features being significantly correlated with evolutionary rates, they explain less than 20% of the variation in nonsynonymous rates (dN) and <15% of the variation in either synonymous rates (dS) or dN:dS. Among putative targets of selection were genes involved in defence against pathogens and herbivores, genes with roles in mediating the relationship with rhizobial symbionts and one-third of annotated histone-lysine methyltransferases. Adaptive evolution of the methyltransferases suggests that positive selection in gene expression may have occurred through evolution of enzymes involved in epigenetic modification.

Abstract

Sequence data for >20 000 annotated genes from 56 accessions of Medicago truncatula were used to identify potential targets of positive selection, the determinants of evolutionary rate variation and the relative importance of positive and purifying selection in shaping nucleotide diversity. Based upon patterns of intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, c. 50-75% of nonsynonymous polymorphisms are subject to strong purifying selection and 1% of the sampled genes harbour a signature of positive selection. Combining polymorphism with expression data, we estimated the distribution of fitness effects and found that the proportion of deleterious mutations is significantly greater for expressed genes than for genes with undetected transcripts (nonexpressed) in a previous RNA-seq experiment and greater for broadly expressed genes than those expressed in only a single tissue. Expression level is the strongest correlate of evolutionary rates at nonsynonymous sites, and despite multiple genomic features being significantly correlated with evolutionary rates, they explain less than 20% of the variation in nonsynonymous rates (dN) and <15% of the variation in either synonymous rates (dS) or dN:dS. Among putative targets of selection were genes involved in defence against pathogens and herbivores, genes with roles in mediating the relationship with rhizobial symbionts and one-third of annotated histone-lysine methyltransferases. Adaptive evolution of the methyltransferases suggests that positive selection in gene expression may have occurred through evolution of enzymes involved in epigenetic modification.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:23 Oct 2013 09:19
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:04
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0962-1083
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12329
PubMed ID:23773281

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