Although there only limited supportive evidence it is suggested that in the setting of elective surgery whenever possible one should aim for a normal preoperative blood pressure in hypertensive patients. If preoperative pressure is >180 mmHg (adequate and correct blood pressure measurement technique, whenever needed 24 h-ABPM) an elective surgical intervention should be postponed and blood pressure control should be optimized. Blood pressure of <180 mmHg is regarded as no contraindication for an elective surgical intervention. The perioperative risk in suboptimally treated hypertensive patients is not elevated as long as perioperative anesthesia handling is optimal and in the absence of relevant comorbidities. In summary present evidence suggests that the pre- and perioperative hypertension is a controllable risk factor of minor relevance. However this does not mean that one should ignore elevated preoperative blood pressure values. More than ten years ago an editorialist brought it to the point by saying: "Preoperative hypertension: remain wary? Yes - cancel surgery? No".