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Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti


Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J; Clark, Kevin D; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R (2013). Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, 43(12):1100-1108.

Abstract

Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled.

Abstract

Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Division of Surgical Research
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2013
Deposited On:08 Nov 2013 09:17
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 23:31
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0965-1748
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2013.09.004
PubMed ID:24076067

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