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Diaspora ohne Heimat: Einfluss der Rückkehrmigration auf japanische Auswanderergemeinschaften in Südamerika


Manzenreiter, Wolfram (2013). Diaspora ohne Heimat: Einfluss der Rückkehrmigration auf japanische Auswanderergemeinschaften in Südamerika. Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques, 67(2):651-680.

Abstract

Currently more than 2.5 million Americans living on the South and North American continents are Nikkei or descendants of Japanese migrants. The history of their forefathers’ emigration, particularly to Northern America and Brazil, has attracted considerable scholarly attention. Their interest in issues of living in the diaspora, the meaning of ethnicity and citizenship has been renewed by the recent wave of sojourner migration by Latin Americans of Japanese origin into Japan. Virtually nothing is known so far about the Japanese settlements of minor size, and – more to the point of this study –, of the impact of “return migration” and the “returnees’ remigration” on the diaspora in Latin America. To what degree have ideas of ethnic or political loyalty, of national and cultural identity been shifting one way or the other due to the increased proximity to their ancestors’ place of origin and the influx of material and immaterial goods from Japan? And how have narratives on the experience of hostile or discriminatory treatment by the Japanese impacted on the collective image of the Nikkei in Latin America? The Nikkei experience of living abroad bears the potential for rethinking the meaning of diaspora. As the Nikkeis’ return home migration, to the land of their ancestors, has not fulfilled the postulated ‘negation of a diaspora’ (Clifford, 1994), it has squared the sensation of being diasporic in the sense of being displaced twice and having multiple relationships with distinct nations which are neither just homeland nor hostland. Based on multi-sited fieldwork in Japan, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, I argue that the Nikkei are entangled in a squared diaspora in which the juxtaposition of homeland and hostland itself becomes questionable, instable and fluctuating.

Abstract

Currently more than 2.5 million Americans living on the South and North American continents are Nikkei or descendants of Japanese migrants. The history of their forefathers’ emigration, particularly to Northern America and Brazil, has attracted considerable scholarly attention. Their interest in issues of living in the diaspora, the meaning of ethnicity and citizenship has been renewed by the recent wave of sojourner migration by Latin Americans of Japanese origin into Japan. Virtually nothing is known so far about the Japanese settlements of minor size, and – more to the point of this study –, of the impact of “return migration” and the “returnees’ remigration” on the diaspora in Latin America. To what degree have ideas of ethnic or political loyalty, of national and cultural identity been shifting one way or the other due to the increased proximity to their ancestors’ place of origin and the influx of material and immaterial goods from Japan? And how have narratives on the experience of hostile or discriminatory treatment by the Japanese impacted on the collective image of the Nikkei in Latin America? The Nikkei experience of living abroad bears the potential for rethinking the meaning of diaspora. As the Nikkeis’ return home migration, to the land of their ancestors, has not fulfilled the postulated ‘negation of a diaspora’ (Clifford, 1994), it has squared the sensation of being diasporic in the sense of being displaced twice and having multiple relationships with distinct nations which are neither just homeland nor hostland. Based on multi-sited fieldwork in Japan, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, I argue that the Nikkei are entangled in a squared diaspora in which the juxtaposition of homeland and hostland itself becomes questionable, instable and fluctuating.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:Journals > Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques > Archive > 67 (2013) > 2
Dewey Decimal Classification:180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy
290 Other religions
Language:German
Date:2013
Deposited On:15 Nov 2013 17:25
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 23:45
Publisher:Schweizerische Asiengesellschaft / Verlag Peter Lang
ISSN:0004-4717
Related URLs:http://www.sagw.ch/de/asiengesellschaft/publikationen/Asiatische-Studien.html (Publisher)
http://www.peterlang.com/index.cfm?vID=86850&vLang=D&vHR=1&vUR=4&vUUR=11 (Publisher)

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