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Blood glucose, acid–base and electrolyte changes during loading doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists followed by constant rate infusions in horses


Ringer, S K; Schwarzwald, C C; Portier, K; Mauch, J; Ritter, A; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R (2013). Blood glucose, acid–base and electrolyte changes during loading doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists followed by constant rate infusions in horses. Veterinary Journal, 198(3):684-689.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in blood glucose concentration ([Glu]B), acid-base status and electrolyte concentrations during constant rate infusions (CRI) of two alpha2-adrenergic agonists in seven horses treated in a blinded, randomised, crossover design with xylazine or romifidine. An intravenous (IV) bolus of xylazine (1mg/kg) or romifidine (80μg/kg) was administered followed by an IV CRI of xylazine (0.69mg/kg/h) or romifidine (30μg/kg/h) for 2h. Blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery before and after loading doses, during the CRI, and for 1h after discontinuing drugs. Blood glucose, base excess (BE), pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pv¯CO2), strong ion difference (SIDest) and bicarbonate concentration ( [Formula: see text] ) increased significantly during the CRI with both alpha2-adrenergic agonists. Chloride concentration ([Cl-]B) and anion-gap (AG) decreased significantly compared to baseline. The decrease in sodium concentration ([Na+]B) was only significant with xylazine. From 1h after starting the CRI onwards, [Glu]B was significantly higher with romifidine compared to xylazine. Except [Glu]B, SIDest, and Pv¯CO2, all variables returned to normal values 1h after discontinuing xylazine. After stopping romifidine, all variables except pH remained altered for at least 1h. It was concluded that loading doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists followed by CRIs produce [Glu]B, acid-base and electrolyte changes. The clinical significance of the reported changes remains to be investigated and absolute values should be interpreted with caution, as fluid boli were used for cardiac output measurements, but may become important during prolonged infusion and in critically ill patients.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in blood glucose concentration ([Glu]B), acid-base status and electrolyte concentrations during constant rate infusions (CRI) of two alpha2-adrenergic agonists in seven horses treated in a blinded, randomised, crossover design with xylazine or romifidine. An intravenous (IV) bolus of xylazine (1mg/kg) or romifidine (80μg/kg) was administered followed by an IV CRI of xylazine (0.69mg/kg/h) or romifidine (30μg/kg/h) for 2h. Blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery before and after loading doses, during the CRI, and for 1h after discontinuing drugs. Blood glucose, base excess (BE), pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pv¯CO2), strong ion difference (SIDest) and bicarbonate concentration ( [Formula: see text] ) increased significantly during the CRI with both alpha2-adrenergic agonists. Chloride concentration ([Cl-]B) and anion-gap (AG) decreased significantly compared to baseline. The decrease in sodium concentration ([Na+]B) was only significant with xylazine. From 1h after starting the CRI onwards, [Glu]B was significantly higher with romifidine compared to xylazine. Except [Glu]B, SIDest, and Pv¯CO2, all variables returned to normal values 1h after discontinuing xylazine. After stopping romifidine, all variables except pH remained altered for at least 1h. It was concluded that loading doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists followed by CRIs produce [Glu]B, acid-base and electrolyte changes. The clinical significance of the reported changes remains to be investigated and absolute values should be interpreted with caution, as fluid boli were used for cardiac output measurements, but may become important during prolonged infusion and in critically ill patients.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:19 Nov 2013 14:03
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:09
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1090-0233
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.063
PubMed ID:24215780

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