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Mycobacterioses in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management


Abstract

OVERVIEW: Mycobacterial infections are important in humans and animals. Cats can be infected by several Mycobacterium species, which may cause different syndromes, mainly tuberculosis, atypical or non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis and leprosy. In recent years, awareness has increased about how to recognise and confirm these infections. More cases are diagnosed today, which probably means that the disease has escaped detection in the past.
INFECTION: Most cases in cats are cutaneous, presenting as nodules in the skin and draining tracts, ulceration and local lymphadenopathy; however, systemic dissemination may also occur.
DIAGNOSIS: Definitive diagnosis is difficult when the bacterium cannot be detected by histology or culture. However, species confirmation is essential for treatment and prognosis, so material for culture and polymerase chain reaction should be submitted in every suspected case.
TREATMENT: Treatment is challenging. A combination of two or three antibiotics is needed, and treatment must be continued for some months, which makes owner compliance especially difficult in cats. ZOONOTIC RISK: There is a zoonotic risk associated with some mycobacterial species. Concerns should be communicated in every case of an immunocompromised owner in contact with an infected cat.

Abstract

OVERVIEW: Mycobacterial infections are important in humans and animals. Cats can be infected by several Mycobacterium species, which may cause different syndromes, mainly tuberculosis, atypical or non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis and leprosy. In recent years, awareness has increased about how to recognise and confirm these infections. More cases are diagnosed today, which probably means that the disease has escaped detection in the past.
INFECTION: Most cases in cats are cutaneous, presenting as nodules in the skin and draining tracts, ulceration and local lymphadenopathy; however, systemic dissemination may also occur.
DIAGNOSIS: Definitive diagnosis is difficult when the bacterium cannot be detected by histology or culture. However, species confirmation is essential for treatment and prognosis, so material for culture and polymerase chain reaction should be submitted in every suspected case.
TREATMENT: Treatment is challenging. A combination of two or three antibiotics is needed, and treatment must be continued for some months, which makes owner compliance especially difficult in cats. ZOONOTIC RISK: There is a zoonotic risk associated with some mycobacterial species. Concerns should be communicated in every case of an immunocompromised owner in contact with an infected cat.

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7 citations in Web of Science®
8 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:17 Feb 2014 11:17
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:13
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1098-612X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X13489221
PubMed ID:23813823

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