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Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Development of an autoimmune response


Schaller, M; Studt, J D; Voorberg, J; Kremer Hovinga, J A (2013). Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Development of an autoimmune response. Hämostaseologie, 33(2):121-130.

Abstract

The von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving metalloprotease, ADAMTS13 (adisintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motifs-13) is the only known target of the dysregulated immune response in acquired TTP. Autoantibodies to ADAMTS13 either neutralize its activity or accelerate its clearance, thereby causing a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 in plasma. As a consequence, size regulation of VWF is impaired and the persistence of ultra-large VWF (ULVWF) multimers facilitates microvascular platelet aggregation causing microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and ischaemic organ damage. Autoimmune TTP although a rare disease with an annual incidence of 1.72 cases has a mortality rate of 20% even with adequate therapy. We describe the mechanisms involved in ADAMTS13 autoimmunity with a focus on the role of B- and T-cells in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We discuss the potential translation of recent experimental findings into future therapeutic concepts for the treatment of acquired TTP.

Abstract

The von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving metalloprotease, ADAMTS13 (adisintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motifs-13) is the only known target of the dysregulated immune response in acquired TTP. Autoantibodies to ADAMTS13 either neutralize its activity or accelerate its clearance, thereby causing a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 in plasma. As a consequence, size regulation of VWF is impaired and the persistence of ultra-large VWF (ULVWF) multimers facilitates microvascular platelet aggregation causing microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and ischaemic organ damage. Autoimmune TTP although a rare disease with an annual incidence of 1.72 cases has a mortality rate of 20% even with adequate therapy. We describe the mechanisms involved in ADAMTS13 autoimmunity with a focus on the role of B- and T-cells in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We discuss the potential translation of recent experimental findings into future therapeutic concepts for the treatment of acquired TTP.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Hematology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:29 May 2013
Deposited On:26 Dec 2013 13:02
Last Modified:16 Feb 2018 18:46
Publisher:Schattauer
ISSN:0720-9355
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.5482/HAMO-12-12-0023
PubMed ID:23443151

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