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TLR4- and TRIF-dependent stimulation of B lymphocytes by peptide liposomes enables T cell-independent isotype switch in mice


Abstract

Immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to IgG in response to peptides is generally T cell-dependent and vaccination in T cell-deficient individuals is inefficient. We show that a vaccine consisting of a dense array of peptides on liposomes induced peptide-specific IgG responses totally independent of T-cell help. Independency was confirmed in mice lacking T cells and in mice deficient for MHC class II, CD40L, and CD28. The IgG titers were high, long-lived, and comparable with titers obtained in wild-type animals, and the antibody response was associated with germinal center formation, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and affinity maturation. The T cell-independent (TI) IgG response was strictly dependent on ligation of TLR4 receptors on B cells, and concomitant TLR4 and cognate B-cell receptor stimulation was required on a single-cell level. Surprisingly, the IgG class switch was mediated by TIR-domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β (TRIF), but not by MyD88. This study demonstrates that peptides can induce TI isotype switching when antigen and TLR ligand are assembled and appropriately presented directly to B lymphocytes. A TI vaccine could enable efficient prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination of patients with T-cell deficiencies and find application in diseases where induction of T-cell responses contraindicates vaccination, for example, in Alzheimer disease.

Abstract

Immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to IgG in response to peptides is generally T cell-dependent and vaccination in T cell-deficient individuals is inefficient. We show that a vaccine consisting of a dense array of peptides on liposomes induced peptide-specific IgG responses totally independent of T-cell help. Independency was confirmed in mice lacking T cells and in mice deficient for MHC class II, CD40L, and CD28. The IgG titers were high, long-lived, and comparable with titers obtained in wild-type animals, and the antibody response was associated with germinal center formation, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and affinity maturation. The T cell-independent (TI) IgG response was strictly dependent on ligation of TLR4 receptors on B cells, and concomitant TLR4 and cognate B-cell receptor stimulation was required on a single-cell level. Surprisingly, the IgG class switch was mediated by TIR-domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β (TRIF), but not by MyD88. This study demonstrates that peptides can induce TI isotype switching when antigen and TLR ligand are assembled and appropriately presented directly to B lymphocytes. A TI vaccine could enable efficient prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination of patients with T-cell deficiencies and find application in diseases where induction of T-cell responses contraindicates vaccination, for example, in Alzheimer disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:07 Jan 2014 16:06
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:20
Publisher:American Society of Hematology
ISSN:0006-4971
Additional Information:This research was originally published in Blood (2013), 121(1):85-94. Copyright by the American Society of Hematology.
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-02-413831
PubMed ID:23144170

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