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Deoxysphingolipids, a novel biomarker for type 2 diabetes, are cytotoxic for insulin-producing cells


Zuellig, Richard A; Hornemann, Thorsten; Othman, Alaa; Hehl, Adrian B; Bode, Heiko; Güntert, Tanja; Ogunshola, Omolara O; Saponara, Enrica; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Jang, Jae-Hwi; Ungethuem, Udo; Wei, Yu; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Graf, Rolf; Sonda, Sabrina (2014). Deoxysphingolipids, a novel biomarker for type 2 diabetes, are cytotoxic for insulin-producing cells. Diabetes, 63(4):1326-1339.

Abstract

Irreversible failure of pancreatic β-cells is the main culprit in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, a disease that is now a major global epidemic. Recently, elevated plasma levels of deoxysphingolipids, including 1-deoxysphinganine, have been identified as novel biomarkers for the disease. In this study, we analyzed whether deoxysphingolipids directly compromise the functionality of insulin-producing Ins-1 cells and primary islets. Treatment with 1-deoxysphinganine induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity with senescent, necrotic and apoptotic characteristics and compromised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, 1-deoxysphinganine altered cytoskeleton dynamics, resulting in intracellular accumulation of filamentous actin and activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1. Moreover, 1-deoxysphinganine selectively up-regulated ceramide synthase 5 expression and was converted to 1-deoxy-dihydroceramides, without altering normal ceramide levels. Inhibition of intracellular 1-deoxysphinganine trafficking and ceramide synthesis improved the viability of the cells, indicating that the intracellular metabolites of 1-deoxysphinganine contribute to its cytotoxicity. Analyses of signaling pathways identified JNK and p38 MAPK as antagonistic effectors of cellular senescence. Our results revealed that 1-deoxysphinganine is a cytotoxic lipid for insulin-producing cells, suggesting that the increased levels of this sphingolipid observed in diabetic patients may contribute to the reduced functionality of pancreatic β-cells. Thus, targeting deoxy-sphingolipid synthesis may complement the currently available therapies of diabetes.

Abstract

Irreversible failure of pancreatic β-cells is the main culprit in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, a disease that is now a major global epidemic. Recently, elevated plasma levels of deoxysphingolipids, including 1-deoxysphinganine, have been identified as novel biomarkers for the disease. In this study, we analyzed whether deoxysphingolipids directly compromise the functionality of insulin-producing Ins-1 cells and primary islets. Treatment with 1-deoxysphinganine induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity with senescent, necrotic and apoptotic characteristics and compromised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, 1-deoxysphinganine altered cytoskeleton dynamics, resulting in intracellular accumulation of filamentous actin and activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1. Moreover, 1-deoxysphinganine selectively up-regulated ceramide synthase 5 expression and was converted to 1-deoxy-dihydroceramides, without altering normal ceramide levels. Inhibition of intracellular 1-deoxysphinganine trafficking and ceramide synthesis improved the viability of the cells, indicating that the intracellular metabolites of 1-deoxysphinganine contribute to its cytotoxicity. Analyses of signaling pathways identified JNK and p38 MAPK as antagonistic effectors of cellular senescence. Our results revealed that 1-deoxysphinganine is a cytotoxic lipid for insulin-producing cells, suggesting that the increased levels of this sphingolipid observed in diabetic patients may contribute to the reduced functionality of pancreatic β-cells. Thus, targeting deoxy-sphingolipid synthesis may complement the currently available therapies of diabetes.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology

05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology
610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:16 Jan 2014 14:22
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 08:03
Publisher:American Diabetes Association
ISSN:0012-1797
Additional Information:This is an author-created, uncopyedited electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Diabetes (http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org). The American Diabetes Association (ADA), publisher of Diabetes, is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it by third parties. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at 10.2337/db13-1042.
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2337/db13-1042
PubMed ID:24379346

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