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Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites


Feikin, Daniel R; Kagucia, Eunice W; Loo, Jennifer D; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S; Whitney, Cynthia G; O'Brien, Katherine L; Moore, Matthew R (2013). Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites. PLoS Medicine, 10(9):e1001517.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]).
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the effects after introduction of higher valency PCVs. High-quality, population-based surveillance of serotype-specific IPD rates is needed to monitor vaccine impact as more countries, including low-income countries, introduce PCVs and as higher valency PCVs are used. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]).
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the effects after introduction of higher valency PCVs. High-quality, population-based surveillance of serotype-specific IPD rates is needed to monitor vaccine impact as more countries, including low-income countries, introduce PCVs and as higher valency PCVs are used. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:22 Jan 2014 10:14
Last Modified:16 Feb 2018 19:08
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1549-1277
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001517
PubMed ID:24086113

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