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Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of aligned and incommensurate graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostack on Cu(111)


Roth, Silvan; Matsui, Fumihiko; Greber, Thomas; Osterwalder, Jürg (2013). Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of aligned and incommensurate graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostack on Cu(111). Nano letters, 13(6):2668-2675.

Abstract

Two limiting factors for a new technology of graphene-based electronic devices are the difficulty of growing large areas of defect-free material and the integration of graphene with an atomically flat and insulating substrate material. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on metal surfaces, in particular on copper, may offer a solution to the first problem, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been identified as an ideal insulating substrate material. The bottom-up growth of graphene/h-BN stacks on copper surfaces appears therefore as a promising route for future device fabrication. As an important step, we demonstrate the consecutive growth of well-aligned graphene on h-BN, both as single layers, by low-pressure CVD on Cu(111) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The resulting films show a largely predominant orientation, defined by the substrate, where the graphene lattice aligns parallel to the h-BN lattice, while each layer maintains its own lattice constant. The lattice mismatch of 1.6% between h-BN and graphene leads to a moiré pattern with a periodicity of about 9 nm, as observed with scanning tunneling microscopy. Accordingly, angle-resolved photoemission data reveal two slightly different Brillouin zones for electronic states localized in graphene and in h-BN, reflecting the vertical decoupling of the two layers. The graphene appears n-doped and shows no gap opening at the K[overline] point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone.

Abstract

Two limiting factors for a new technology of graphene-based electronic devices are the difficulty of growing large areas of defect-free material and the integration of graphene with an atomically flat and insulating substrate material. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on metal surfaces, in particular on copper, may offer a solution to the first problem, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been identified as an ideal insulating substrate material. The bottom-up growth of graphene/h-BN stacks on copper surfaces appears therefore as a promising route for future device fabrication. As an important step, we demonstrate the consecutive growth of well-aligned graphene on h-BN, both as single layers, by low-pressure CVD on Cu(111) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The resulting films show a largely predominant orientation, defined by the substrate, where the graphene lattice aligns parallel to the h-BN lattice, while each layer maintains its own lattice constant. The lattice mismatch of 1.6% between h-BN and graphene leads to a moiré pattern with a periodicity of about 9 nm, as observed with scanning tunneling microscopy. Accordingly, angle-resolved photoemission data reveal two slightly different Brillouin zones for electronic states localized in graphene and in h-BN, reflecting the vertical decoupling of the two layers. The graphene appears n-doped and shows no gap opening at the K[overline] point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:05 Feb 2014 15:37
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 08:43
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:1530-6984
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/nl400815w
PubMed ID:23656509

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