Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Drop drying on surfaces determines chemical reactivity - the specific case of immobilization of oligonucleotides on microarrays


Sobek, Jens; Aquino, Catharine; Weigel, Wilfried; Schlapbach, Ralph (2013). Drop drying on surfaces determines chemical reactivity - the specific case of immobilization of oligonucleotides on microarrays. BMC Biophysics, 6:8.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Drop drying is a key factor in a wide range of technical applications, including spotted microarrays. The applied nL liquid volume provides specific reaction conditions for the immobilization of probe molecules to a chemically modified surface. RESULTS: We investigated the influence of nL and μL liquid drop volumes on the process of probe immobilization and compare the results obtained to the situation in liquid solution. In our data, we observe a strong relationship between drop drying effects on immobilization and surface chemistry. In this work, we present results on the immobilization of dye labeled 20mer oligonucleotides with and without an activating 5'-aminoheptyl linker onto a 2D epoxysilane and a 3D NHS activated hydrogel surface. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments identified two basic processes determining immobilization. First, the rate of drop drying that depends on the drop volume and the ambient relative humidity. Oligonucleotides in a dried spot react unspecifically with the surface and long reaction times are needed. 3D hydrogel surfaces allow for immobilization in a liquid environment under diffusive conditions. Here, oligonucleotide immobilization is much faster and a specific reaction with the reactive linker group is observed. Second, the effect of increasing probe concentration as a result of drop drying. On a 3D hydrogel, the increasing concentration of probe molecules in nL spotting volumes accelerates immobilization dramatically. In case of μL volumes, immobilization depends on whether the drop is allowed to dry completely. At non-drying conditions, very limited immobilization is observed due to the low oligonucleotide concentration used in microarray spotting solutions. The results of our study provide a general guideline for microarray assay development. They allow for the initial definition and further optimization of reaction conditions for the immobilization of oligonucleotides and other probe molecule classes to different surfaces in dependence of the applied spotting and reaction volume.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Drop drying is a key factor in a wide range of technical applications, including spotted microarrays. The applied nL liquid volume provides specific reaction conditions for the immobilization of probe molecules to a chemically modified surface. RESULTS: We investigated the influence of nL and μL liquid drop volumes on the process of probe immobilization and compare the results obtained to the situation in liquid solution. In our data, we observe a strong relationship between drop drying effects on immobilization and surface chemistry. In this work, we present results on the immobilization of dye labeled 20mer oligonucleotides with and without an activating 5'-aminoheptyl linker onto a 2D epoxysilane and a 3D NHS activated hydrogel surface. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments identified two basic processes determining immobilization. First, the rate of drop drying that depends on the drop volume and the ambient relative humidity. Oligonucleotides in a dried spot react unspecifically with the surface and long reaction times are needed. 3D hydrogel surfaces allow for immobilization in a liquid environment under diffusive conditions. Here, oligonucleotide immobilization is much faster and a specific reaction with the reactive linker group is observed. Second, the effect of increasing probe concentration as a result of drop drying. On a 3D hydrogel, the increasing concentration of probe molecules in nL spotting volumes accelerates immobilization dramatically. In case of μL volumes, immobilization depends on whether the drop is allowed to dry completely. At non-drying conditions, very limited immobilization is observed due to the low oligonucleotide concentration used in microarray spotting solutions. The results of our study provide a general guideline for microarray assay development. They allow for the initial definition and further optimization of reaction conditions for the immobilization of oligonucleotides and other probe molecule classes to different surfaces in dependence of the applied spotting and reaction volume.

Statistics

Citations

Altmetrics

Downloads

25 downloads since deposited on 24 Jan 2014
6 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, not refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Functional Genomics Center Zurich
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:24 Jan 2014 15:26
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 03:06
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:2046-1682
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-1682-6-8
PubMed ID:23758982

Download

Download PDF  'Drop drying on surfaces determines chemical reactivity - the specific case of immobilization of oligonucleotides on microarrays'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 531kB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)