BACKGROUND: Almost a quarter of the world-population suffers from IgE-mediated allergies. T cells and IgG-producing B cells can produce protection, but treatment of disease is laborious with unsatisfactory patient compliance.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify if paediatric allergy vaccines affected later allergen sensitisation and onset of disease when used prophylactically.
METHODS: A murine model of anaphylaxis was applied. Mice were first immunised with monovalent or multivalent allergy vaccines that also contained aluminium hydroxide and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide as adjuvants. Later, the mice were sensitised by multiple low-dose injections of aluminium-adsorbed allergen. After a dormant period, the mice were challenged systemically with high-dose allergen, and the clinical signs of anaphylaxis were recorded. Throughout the immunisation and sensitisation periods, blood was collected for serological testing.
RESULTS: Immunisation with allergy vaccines produced antigen-specific protection against sensitisation as measured by systemic anaphylaxis in mice. The long-term effect was observed both after juvenile (5-6 weeks) and neonatal (7 days) vaccination. Monovalent and pentavalent vaccines were protective to a similar level. Protection was associated with increased secretion of IgG2a and production of IFN-γ. Protection could also be transferred to sensitised mice via serum or via CD25-positive CD4 T cells.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Prophylactic and multivalent allergy vaccines in juvenile and neonatal mice protected against later sensitisation and anaphylaxis. Such treatment may provide a rational measure for future management of allergen-related diseases and their strong socioeconomic impact on daily life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.