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Multiple hybridization events in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) during the last 150 years: revisiting a textbook example of neoallopolyploidy


Zozomová-Lihova, Judita; Krak, Karol; Mandakova, Terezie; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Spaniel, Staniskav; Vit, Petr; Lysak, Martin A (2014). Multiple hybridization events in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) during the last 150 years: revisiting a textbook example of neoallopolyploidy. Annals of Botany, 113(5):817-830.

Abstract

Background and Aims: Recently formed allopolyploid species represent excellent subjects for exploring early stages of polyploid evolution. The hexaploid Cardamine schulzii was regarded as one of the few nascent allopolyploid species formed within the past ∼150 years that presumably arose by autopolyploidization of a triploid hybrid, C. × insueta; however, the most recent investigations have shown that it is a trigenomic hybrid. The aims of this study were to explore the efficiency of progenitor-specific microsatellite markers in detecting the hybrid origins and genome composition of these two allopolyploids, to estimate the frequency of polyploid formation events, and to outline their evolutionary potential for long-term persistence and speciation.
Methods: Flow-cytometric ploidy-level screening and genotyping by progenitor-specific microsatellite markers (20 microsatellite loci) were carried out on samples focused on hybridizing populations at Urnerboden, Switzerland, but also including comparative material of the parental species from other sites in the Alps and more distant areas.
Key Results: It was confirmed that hybridization between the diploids C. amara and C. rivularis auct. gave rise to triploid C. × insueta, and it is inferred that this has occurred repeatedly. Evidence is provided that C. schulzii comprises three parental genomes and supports its origin from hybridization events between C. × insueta and the locally co-occurring hypotetraploid C. pratensis, leading to two cytotypes of C. schulzii: hypopentaploid and hypohexaploid. Each cytotype of C. schulzii is genetically uniform, suggesting their single origins.
Conclusions: Persistence of C. schulzii has presumably been achieved only by perennial growth and clonal reproduction. This contrasts with C. × insueta, in which multiple origins and occasional sexual reproduction have generated sufficient genetic variation for long-term survival and evolutionary success. This study illustrates a complex case of recurrent hybridization and polyploidization events, and highlights the role of triploids that promoted the origin of trigenomic hybrids.

Abstract

Background and Aims: Recently formed allopolyploid species represent excellent subjects for exploring early stages of polyploid evolution. The hexaploid Cardamine schulzii was regarded as one of the few nascent allopolyploid species formed within the past ∼150 years that presumably arose by autopolyploidization of a triploid hybrid, C. × insueta; however, the most recent investigations have shown that it is a trigenomic hybrid. The aims of this study were to explore the efficiency of progenitor-specific microsatellite markers in detecting the hybrid origins and genome composition of these two allopolyploids, to estimate the frequency of polyploid formation events, and to outline their evolutionary potential for long-term persistence and speciation.
Methods: Flow-cytometric ploidy-level screening and genotyping by progenitor-specific microsatellite markers (20 microsatellite loci) were carried out on samples focused on hybridizing populations at Urnerboden, Switzerland, but also including comparative material of the parental species from other sites in the Alps and more distant areas.
Key Results: It was confirmed that hybridization between the diploids C. amara and C. rivularis auct. gave rise to triploid C. × insueta, and it is inferred that this has occurred repeatedly. Evidence is provided that C. schulzii comprises three parental genomes and supports its origin from hybridization events between C. × insueta and the locally co-occurring hypotetraploid C. pratensis, leading to two cytotypes of C. schulzii: hypopentaploid and hypohexaploid. Each cytotype of C. schulzii is genetically uniform, suggesting their single origins.
Conclusions: Persistence of C. schulzii has presumably been achieved only by perennial growth and clonal reproduction. This contrasts with C. × insueta, in which multiple origins and occasional sexual reproduction have generated sufficient genetic variation for long-term survival and evolutionary success. This study illustrates a complex case of recurrent hybridization and polyploidization events, and highlights the role of triploids that promoted the origin of trigenomic hybrids.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
08 University Research Priority Programs > Evolution in Action: From Genomes to Ecosystems
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
580 Plants (Botany)
Date:2014
Deposited On:24 Mar 2014 13:31
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:44
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0305-7364
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu012
PubMed ID:24577071

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