Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

The SLC6 transporters: perspectives on structure, functions, regulation, and models for transporter dysfunction


Rudnick, Gary; Krämer, Reinhard; Blakely, Randy D; Murphy, Dennis L; Verrey, Francois (2014). The SLC6 transporters: perspectives on structure, functions, regulation, and models for transporter dysfunction. Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology, 466(1):25-42.

Abstract

The human SLC6 family is composed of approximately 20 structurally related symporters (co-transporters) that use the transmembrane electrochemical gradient to actively import their substrates into cells. Approximately half of the substrates of these transporters are amino acids, with others transporting biogenic amines and/or closely related compounds, such as nutrients and compatible osmolytes. In this short review, five leaders in the field discuss a number of currently important research themes that involve SLC6 transporters, highlighting the integrative role they play across a wide spectrum of different functions. The first essay, by Gary Rudnick, describes the molecular mechanism of their coupled transport which is being progressively better understood based on new crystal structures, functional studies, and modeling. Next, the question of multiple levels of transporter regulation is discussed by Reinhard Krämer, in the context of osmoregulation and stress response by the related bacterial betaine transporter BetP. The role of selected members of the human SLC6 family that function as nutrient amino acid transporters is then reviewed by François Verrey. He discusses how some of these transporters mediate the active uptake of (essential) amino acids into epithelial cells of the gut and the kidney tubule to support systemic amino acid requirements, whereas others are expressed in specific cells to support their specialized metabolism and/or growth. The most extensively studied members of the human SLC6 family are neurotransmitter reuptake transporters, many of which are important drug targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Randy Blakely discusses the role of posttranscriptional modifications of these proteins in regulating transporter subcellular localization and activity state. Finally, Dennis Murphy reviews how natural gene variants and mouse genetic models display consistent behavioral alterations that relate to altered extracellular neurotransmitter levels.

Abstract

The human SLC6 family is composed of approximately 20 structurally related symporters (co-transporters) that use the transmembrane electrochemical gradient to actively import their substrates into cells. Approximately half of the substrates of these transporters are amino acids, with others transporting biogenic amines and/or closely related compounds, such as nutrients and compatible osmolytes. In this short review, five leaders in the field discuss a number of currently important research themes that involve SLC6 transporters, highlighting the integrative role they play across a wide spectrum of different functions. The first essay, by Gary Rudnick, describes the molecular mechanism of their coupled transport which is being progressively better understood based on new crystal structures, functional studies, and modeling. Next, the question of multiple levels of transporter regulation is discussed by Reinhard Krämer, in the context of osmoregulation and stress response by the related bacterial betaine transporter BetP. The role of selected members of the human SLC6 family that function as nutrient amino acid transporters is then reviewed by François Verrey. He discusses how some of these transporters mediate the active uptake of (essential) amino acids into epithelial cells of the gut and the kidney tubule to support systemic amino acid requirements, whereas others are expressed in specific cells to support their specialized metabolism and/or growth. The most extensively studied members of the human SLC6 family are neurotransmitter reuptake transporters, many of which are important drug targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Randy Blakely discusses the role of posttranscriptional modifications of these proteins in regulating transporter subcellular localization and activity state. Finally, Dennis Murphy reviews how natural gene variants and mouse genetic models display consistent behavioral alterations that relate to altered extracellular neurotransmitter levels.

Statistics

Citations

31 citations in Web of Science®
35 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

57 downloads since deposited on 27 Mar 2014
31 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:27 Mar 2014 08:33
Last Modified:07 Aug 2017 04:06
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0031-6768
Additional Information:The final publication is available at link.springer.com
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-013-1410-1
PubMed ID:24337881

Download

Preview Icon on Download
Preview
Content: Accepted Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 1MB
View at publisher

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations