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Effects on mortality of alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and close personal relationships


Rehm, J; Fichter, M; Elton, M (2003). Effects on mortality of alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and close personal relationships. Addiction, 88(1):101-112.

Abstract

The study analyses the risks of mortality associated with alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as possible counteracting effects of physical activity and social support through close personal relationships. Data are based on the Upper Bavarian Study, a longitudinal epidemiological study of a representative community sample (n = 1668) in a rural area. Extensive semistructural psychiatric interviews by research physicians were conducted between 1975 and 1977 (n = 1536). Thirteen years after psychiatric assessment, information was obtained from the community register concerning death in the interval, date of death and cause of death according to ICD 9. Tins information could be ascertained for 93.1% (n= 1430) of those who had been interviewed, thus providing a good basis for generalizing the findings. Results indicate that alcohol intake and cigarette smoking increased mortality while physical activity and the availability of a steady partner had protective effects. There were no interactive effects between the four variables studied, except far a dramatically increased risk for women drinking more than 20 ml of pure alcohol a day and reporting no physical exercise at wave one assessment. The relative risks of alcohol intake and smoking, and the counteracting effects of physical activity and partnership, are exemplified in the cases of a 40-year-old female and a 40-year-old male. Specific analyses of the relationship between alcohol consumption, smoking, physical exercise and personal relationships, on the one hand, and, on the other, different causes of death, are presented.

Abstract

The study analyses the risks of mortality associated with alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as possible counteracting effects of physical activity and social support through close personal relationships. Data are based on the Upper Bavarian Study, a longitudinal epidemiological study of a representative community sample (n = 1668) in a rural area. Extensive semistructural psychiatric interviews by research physicians were conducted between 1975 and 1977 (n = 1536). Thirteen years after psychiatric assessment, information was obtained from the community register concerning death in the interval, date of death and cause of death according to ICD 9. Tins information could be ascertained for 93.1% (n= 1430) of those who had been interviewed, thus providing a good basis for generalizing the findings. Results indicate that alcohol intake and cigarette smoking increased mortality while physical activity and the availability of a steady partner had protective effects. There were no interactive effects between the four variables studied, except far a dramatically increased risk for women drinking more than 20 ml of pure alcohol a day and reporting no physical exercise at wave one assessment. The relative risks of alcohol intake and smoking, and the counteracting effects of physical activity and partnership, are exemplified in the cases of a 40-year-old female and a 40-year-old male. Specific analyses of the relationship between alcohol consumption, smoking, physical exercise and personal relationships, on the one hand, and, on the other, different causes of death, are presented.

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33 citations in Web of Science®
39 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Smoking;mortality
Language:German
Date:2003
Deposited On:16 Apr 2014 08:58
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:47
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0965-2140
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02767.x
PubMed ID:8448498

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