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Adenosine, Caffeine, and Performance: From Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep to Sleep Pharmacogenetics


Urry, Emily; Landolt, Hans-Peter (2014). Adenosine, Caffeine, and Performance: From Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep to Sleep Pharmacogenetics. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 25:331-366.

Abstract

An intricate interplay between circadian and sleep-wake homeostatic processes regulate cognitive performance on specific tasks, and individual differences in circadian preference and sleep pressure may contribute to individual differences in distinct neurocognitive functions. Attentional performance appears to be particularly sensitive to time of day modulations and the effects of sleep deprivation. Consistent with the notion that the neuromodulator, adenosine adenosine , plays an important role in regulating sleep pressure, pharmacologic and genetic data in animals and humans demonstrate that differences in adenosinergic tone affect sleepiness, arousal and vigilant attention attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. Caffeine Caffeine -the most often consumed stimulant in the world-blocks adenosine receptors and normally attenuates the consequences of sleep deprivation on arousal, vigilance, and attention. Nevertheless, caffeine cannot substitute for sleep, and is virtually ineffective in mitigating the impact of severe sleep loss on higher-order cognitive functions. Thus, the available evidence suggests that adenosinergic mechanisms, in particular adenosine A2A receptor-mediated signal transduction, contribute to waking-induced impairments of attentional processes, whereas additional mechanisms must be involved in higher-order cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Future investigations should further clarify the exact types of cognitive processes affected by inappropriate sleep. This research will aid in the quest to better understand the role of different brain systems (e.g., adenosine and adenosine receptors) in regulating sleep, and sleep-related subjective state, and cognitive processes. Furthermore, it will provide more detail on the underlying mechanisms of the detrimental effects of extended wakefulness, as well as lead to the development of effective, evidence-based countermeasures against the health consequences of circadian misalignment and chronic sleep restriction.

Abstract

An intricate interplay between circadian and sleep-wake homeostatic processes regulate cognitive performance on specific tasks, and individual differences in circadian preference and sleep pressure may contribute to individual differences in distinct neurocognitive functions. Attentional performance appears to be particularly sensitive to time of day modulations and the effects of sleep deprivation. Consistent with the notion that the neuromodulator, adenosine adenosine , plays an important role in regulating sleep pressure, pharmacologic and genetic data in animals and humans demonstrate that differences in adenosinergic tone affect sleepiness, arousal and vigilant attention attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. Caffeine Caffeine -the most often consumed stimulant in the world-blocks adenosine receptors and normally attenuates the consequences of sleep deprivation on arousal, vigilance, and attention. Nevertheless, caffeine cannot substitute for sleep, and is virtually ineffective in mitigating the impact of severe sleep loss on higher-order cognitive functions. Thus, the available evidence suggests that adenosinergic mechanisms, in particular adenosine A2A receptor-mediated signal transduction, contribute to waking-induced impairments of attentional processes, whereas additional mechanisms must be involved in higher-order cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Future investigations should further clarify the exact types of cognitive processes affected by inappropriate sleep. This research will aid in the quest to better understand the role of different brain systems (e.g., adenosine and adenosine receptors) in regulating sleep, and sleep-related subjective state, and cognitive processes. Furthermore, it will provide more detail on the underlying mechanisms of the detrimental effects of extended wakefulness, as well as lead to the development of effective, evidence-based countermeasures against the health consequences of circadian misalignment and chronic sleep restriction.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:16 Apr 2014 13:16
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 05:18
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1866-3370
Additional Information:The final publication is available at link.springer.com
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2014_274
PubMed ID:24549722

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